Please refer to Chapter 6 Test and Measurement in Sports Notes Class 12 Physical Education and important questions answers below. The Class 12 Physical Education notes have been prepared based on the latest syllabus issued for the current academic year by CBSE. Students should revise these notes and go through important Class 12 Physical Education examination questions given below to obtain better marks in exams.
Chapter 6 Test and Measurement in Sports Class 12 Physical Education Notes and Questions
Test and measurement in physical education are the instruments or devices for getting essential details regarding the needs, capabilities and attitudes of students or sportspersons. Test are use to collect information or data about a specific skill, strength, endurance, knowledge, behavior or attitudes etc.
Whereas measurements are related to physical measurements such as size, weight, height, vital capacity and achievements etc. indeed, measurement refers to the process of administrating a test to obtain a quantitative data.
Motor Fitness Test
Motor fitness refers to the capability of an athlete to perform effectively at his/her particular sport. It can also be said that motor fitness is a person’s ability to perform physical activities. In this test the following items were included:
- 50mts Standing Start:
Students take the start position behind the start line. The starter commands ‘Ready” and “Go”. The score is the amount of time between the starter’s signal and the instant the students cross the finish-line.
Scoring: Time is noted in seconds up to the 10th of a second.
- 600mts Run/Walk:
In this test item a subject runs a distance of 600mts. The subject takes a standing start from the start line. The subject may walk in between. However, the objective is to cover the distance in shortest time.
Scoring: The time taken to run the distance is recorded in minutes and seconds.
- Sit and Reach test:
The sit and reach test was first propounded by Wells and Dillon in 1952. This test is widely used as normal test of flexibility.
Procedure: First of all, shoes and socks should be removed. Then sit down on the floor with legs stretched out straight ahead. The soles of the feet should be kept flat against the box. Both the knees should be locked and pressed flat to the floor. An assistant may hold the knees down. Palms should be facing downwards. Hands should be on the top of each other or side by side. The individual, whose flexibility is to be measured, tries to extend his both hands forward along the measuring line on the box as far as he can extend. His finger tips of both hands should remain equal and at the same level. He should not jerk or bounce to reach at maximum distance. He should hold the full reach position for two seconds and the score should be recorded. Generally in such test warm up is not allowed, however, the results can be attained after suitable warm up. In case of sliding ruler or makeshift ruler the zero mark should be at the fingertips. If it is not available or simple marking is there the zero mark should be 9 inches before the feet.
Scoring: The score is recorded to the nearest centimeter or half inch as the distance reached by the fingertips of both hands.
- Partial Curl Up:
Procedure: The starting position is lying on the back with the knees flexed and feet 12 inches from the buttocks. The feet cannot be held or rest against on object. The arms are extended and are rested on the thighs. The head is in a neutral position. The subject curls up with a slow controlled movement, until the students shoulders come off the mat two inches, then back down again one complete curl up is completed every three seconds and are continued until exhaustion. There is pause in the up or down position, the curl – ups should be continuous with the abdominal muscles engaged through out.
Scoring: Record the total number of curl-ups, only, correctly performed curl ups should be counted
- Push Ups (Boys)
Procedure: The boys take a front leaning position with body supported on hands and balls of feet; the arms should be straight at right angle to the body. They bring themselves downward so that the chest nearly touches the floor, then they push back to the stating position by straightening the arms and repeat the procedures as many times as possible. The arms must be completely extended with each push-up; the body must be held straight throughout.
Scoring: Scoring consists of the number of correct push-up.
- Modified Push Ups (Girls)
Procedure: A bench or stool 32 cm high by 50 cm long and 35 cm wide is required for this test. It should be placed on the floor about 15 cm from a wall so that the girls do not take a position too far forward. They should grasp the outer edges of the bench, or stool, at the nearest corners and assume the front-leaning rest position, with balls of their feet on the floor and with the body and arms forming a right angle. They should then lower their body so that the upper chest touches the near edge of the bench or stool, then raise it to a straight arm position as many times as possible. Their body should be held straight throughout. If their body arches or does not go completely down, half credit is given to them
Scoring: Scoring consists of the number of correct Modified push-up.
- Standing Broad Jump
In this test a subject is required to stand behind a take-off line, with feet apart. He takes a jump forward by extending his bent knees and swinging the arms forward. The best jump recorded, out of the three trails given in the score of the subject.
Scoring: The jump should be recorded in feet and inches.
- Agility – 4 x 10mts Shuttle Run
For this test items, two parallel lines are drawn at a distance of 30 feet from each other and two blocks of wood are placed behind one of the lines. The subject has two stands behind the other line and on the signal “Ready”, “Go” should run to pick up one block, run back to the starting line and place the block behind the line. He should again turn back to pick up the second block and bring it also behind the starting line. Two such trails are given.
Scoring: The better time of the two trails to the nearest 10th of a second is the score of the subject.
Measurement of Cardiovascular Fitness: Harvard Step Test/Rockport
Cardiovascular fitness is the ability of the heart and lungs to supply oxygen-rich blood to the working muscle tissues and the ability of the muscles to use oxygen to produce energy for movements.
A. Harvard Step Test:
It is a cardiovascular fitness test. It is also called aerobic fitness test. It was developed by Brouha and others in 1943. It is used to measure the cardiovascular fitness or aerobic fitness by checking the recovery rate.
Equipment’s Required: A gym bench or box of 20 inches high for men and 16 inches for women, a stopwatch and cadence tape.
The athlete stands in front of the bench or box. On the command ‘Go’ the athlete steps up and down on the bench or box at a rate of 30 steps per minute (one second up and one second down) for 5 minute(150 steps). Stopwatch is also started simultaneously at the start of the stepping. After that the athlete sits down immediately after completion of the test i.e. after 5 minutes. The total numbers of heartbeats are counted between 1 to 1.5 minutes after completion of the last step. The heartbeats are counted for 30 seconds period. Again the heartbeats are noted for 30 seconds after the finishing of the test. After that third time the heartbeats are noted after 3 minutes of completion of the test for 30
seconds periods. The same foot must start the step up each time, and an erect posture must be assumed on the bench.
Calculation of the Score: the athlete’s fitness index score is calculated with the help of following formula:
Fitness index score (Long term) = (100 x test duration in seconds) divided by (2 x sum of heartbeats in recovery periods)
Fitness index score (Short term) = (100 x test duration in seconds) divided by (5.5 x pulse count b/w 1 to 1.5min. after exercise)
- Minimum equipment’s are required for conducting this test.
- It requires minimal cost.
- It is simple to set-up and conduct.
Disadvantages: There are differences in bio-mechanical characteristic among individuals. But the height of the box or bench remains same for tall individuals and short individuals. It will be easy for tall individuals and difficult for short individuals. The same difference can be seen in case of body weight. Those individuals who are overweight, it will be difficult for them. So it is not implemented equally to all individuals.
B. Rockport One Mile Test
It is also known as Rockport Fitness Walking Test. This test is suitable for secondary individual. The objective of this test is to check or observe the development of the individual’s VO2 max i.e. maximum volume of oxygen.
Running track (200m or 400m), stopwatch, weighting scale and an assistant or helper.
Administration and Procedure of Test
This test requires the athlete to walk one mile (1609 meters) as fast as possible.
- The assistant weighs and records the athlete’s weight
- The athlete warms up for 10 minutes
- The assistant gives the command “GO”, starts the stopwatch and the athlete commences the test
- The assistant records the time taken for the athlete to complete the test and the athlete’s heart rate immediately on finishing
Calculation Procedure for VO2 max:
The formula (Kilne 1987) used to calculate VO2 max is:
= 132.853 – (0.0769 × Weight) – (0.3877 × Age) + (6.135 × Gender) – (3.2649 × Time) – (0.1565 × Heart rate)
- Weight is in pounds (lbs)
- Time is expressed in minutes and 100ths of minutes
- Heart rate is in beats/minute
- Age is in years
- Gender Male = 1 and Female = 0
After calculating the VO2 max, the comparison of the individual can be done with the results of previous tests. It is expected that with the appropriate training between each test the analysis would surely indicate the improvement of the individual.
- Minimum equipments are required.
- It can be conducted by the athlete.
- This test can be conducted on more than one individual at a time.
- It is simple to set up and conduct.
Disadvantages: Specific facilities are required for this test.
Rikli and Jones: Senior Citizen Fitness Test
Even in old age, everybody wants to be able to continue to do what he wants, without pain, for as long as possible. It requires proper fitness during such age. In the beginning there were not enough tests to assess the functional fitness. This test is also known as Fullerton Functional Test of senior citizens. So, owing to that Rikli and Jones developed the senior citizen fitness test in 2001. This test is beneficial for various senior citizens. The Senior Citizen Fitness Test comprises the following tests.
- Chair Stand Test for Lower Body Strength
Procedure: Keep the chair against the wall. The participant sits in the middle of the seat. His feet should be shoulder width apart and flat on the floor. The arms should be crossed at the wrists and held close to the chest.
From the sitting position, the participant stands up completely up then completely back down at the start of the signal. This is repeated for 30 sec. Count the total no. of complete chair stands.
Scoring: The score is the total no. of completed chair stands during 30 seconds.
- Arm Curl Test for Upper Body Strength
Procedures: To do the maximum no. of arm curls that can be completed in 30 seconds is its aim. Arm curl is performed with the dominant arm side. The participant sits on the chair, hold the weight in the hand using a suitcase grip. It
means the palms should be facing towards the body. The upper arm should not move but lower arm should move freely. Curl the arm of through a complete range of motion gradually turning the palm up. This complete action should be repeated by the participant as many a times as possible within 30 seconds.
Scoring: The score is the total no. of arm curl performed in 30 seconds duration.
- Chair Sit and Reach Test for Lower Body Flexibility
Procedure: The participant sits on the edge of the chair (kept against a wall for safety purpose). One foot remain flat on the floor while the other leg should be extended remain forward with the knee straight. Heel should be on the floor and ankle should be bent at 900. Place one hand on the top of the other with tips of the middle fingers even. Instruct the participant to inhale and then as he exhales, reach forward towards the toes by bending at the hip. His back should be straight and head up. Avoid any jerk or bounce and never stretch too much. Keep the knee straight and hold the
reach for 2 seconds. The distance is measured between the tip of the finger tips and the toes. If the finger tips touch the toes then the score is zero. If they do not touch, measure the distance between the fingers and the toes (negative score). If they overlap, measure by how much (positive score).
Scoring: The score is noted down to the nearest 1/2 inches or 1 cm as the distance reached either a negative or positive score.
- Back Scratch Test for Upper Body Flexibility
Procedure: This test is performed in standing position. Keep one hand behind the head and back over the shoulder and reach as far as possible down middle of your back. Your palm should touch your body and fingers should be downwards. Then carry your other arm behind your back palm facing outwards and fingers upwards and reach up as far as possible trying to touch or overlap the middle fingers of both hands. Fingers should be aligned. Measure the distance between tips of the fingers. If the finger tips touch then the score is zero. If they do not touch the distance between the fingers tips (negative score). If they overlap, measure how much (positive score).
Scoring: Record the best score out of the two tests to the nearest cm or half inch.
- Eight Foot Up and Go Test for Agility
Procedures: Keep a chair next to the wall and the marker, 8 feet in front of the chair. The participants start completely seated hands resting on the knees and feet flat on the ground. On the command go stop watch is started and the
participant stands and walks as quickly as possible to and around cone and returns to the chair to sit down. Time is noted as he sits down on the chair. Two trials are given to the participant.
Scoring: The best trial is recorded to the nearest 1/10th second.
- Six Minute Walk Test for Aerobic Endurance
Procedures: The walking distance or course is marked i.e. 50 yards in a rectangle area (45×5 yards or 45.72×4.57 m) with cones placed at regular intervals to indicate the distance covered. Efforts are made to walk maximum distance as quickly as possible in six minutes. A practice trial is given to the participant. He may stop any time if he desires so.
Scoring: The total distance covered in six minutes is recorded to the nearest meter.