Please refer to Chapter 9 Psychology and Sports Notes Class 12 Physical Education and important questions answers below. The Class 12 Physical Education notes have been prepared based on the latest syllabus issued for the current academic year by CBSE. Students should revise these notes and go through important Class 12 Physical Education examination questions given below to obtain better marks in exams.
Chapter 9 Psychology and Sports Class 12 Physical Education Notes and Questions
Personality, its Definition and Types- Trait and Type (Sheldon and Jung’s Classification and Big Five Theory
The word personality is derived from the Latin word ‘Persona’, which means ‘Mask’. The mask was worn by the various actors in dramas in the days of ancient Greek civilization. Personality usually means that an individual is much more than his outer appearance. Personality is a dynamic and organized set of characteristics possessed by a person that influences his/her cognition, emotions, motivations and behaviors in different types of situations.
Watson, “Personality is the sum total of one’s behavior’.
According to Burgess, “Personality is the integration of all habits which determine the role and status of the person in society”.
Sheldon Classification of Personality: William Herbert Sheldon Classified the people on the basis of their body structure. This classification is called Somato-types. Sheldon first classification people into several Somato-types, but reduced the classified to the following three types based on the temperament and appearance.
- Endomorph: Such people are characterized by fat belly, love of comfort, love of eating, sociability, slow to react and affectionate, etc. Sports and games, which require strength like weightlifting and power-lifting, are most suitable for endomorphs.
- Mesomorph: Such people are muscular, energetic, courageous, dominating, risk taking and love adventure. They can excel in such sports which require great strength, short bursts of energy and lots of power because they have enough strength, agility and speed. These
characteristics make them strong contenders to be the top sportsperson in any sports.
- Ectomorph: They are lean or thin, full of anxiety, over tense, secretive, introverts and like to be lonely besides many other qualities. There light body constitution makes them suited for aerobic activities like gymnastics.
Jung’s Classification of Personality
Carl G. Jung’s classified personality on the basis of sociability character as introverts, extroverts and ambiverts. These are described below:
- Introverts: these are the persons who have characteristics such as shyness, social withdrawal and tendency to talk less. Owing to these characteristics such persons seem to be self-centered, unable to adjust easily in society or social situations. They are very sensible, rigid in ideas and future oriented.
- Extroverts: Extroverts have a tendency to be friendly, outgoing, talkative and social in nature. They usually prefer social contacts. They are generous, supportive and courageous. They may be called happy and lucky persons. They show interest in present reality than future. They do not have hesitation. They express their feelings openly. They take decision quickly and act upon quickly. They are not affected easily by difficulties and troubles.
- Ambiverts: They are only few persons who are pure introverts and pure extroverts the remaining majority of persons possess both the qualities and traits of introverts and extroverts such persons are called as ambiverts.
Big Five Personality Theory
The big five factors of personality are the five main domains which define human personality and account for individual differences. These five domains or dimensions of personality are considered to be the fundamental traits that make up an individual’s overall personality. The big five traits of personality are described below:
- Openness: Persons who like to learn new things, new concepts and enjoy new experiences usually remain on the top in openness. Openness includes traits like being imaginative, insightful and having a variety of interests. People who are high in this trait tend to be more adventurous and creative.
- Conscientiousness: Persons who have degree of conscientiousness are reliable and prompt. Such persons remain organized, systematic, laborious and complete in all respects.
- Extroversion: Extroverts get their energy from interacting with other individuals, whereas introverts get their energy from within themselves. Extroversion includes the traits of being energetic, talkative and assertive.
- Agreeableness: Such individuals are friendly, cooperative, compatible, kind and gentle. Persons with too agreeableness may be more distant or aloof. They are kind, generous, affectionate and sympathetic.+
- Neuroticism: This domain or dimension relates to one’s emotional stability and the degree of negative emotions. Persons who have high neuroticism usually experience emotional instability and negative emotions. Such individuals remain moody and tense. Individuals who are low in neuroticism tend to be content, confident, and stable.
Motivation, its Types and Techniques
The word motivation is derived from a Latin word ‘Movere’ meaning ‘to change’ or ‘to move’.
According to Morgan and King, “Motivation refers to the state within a person or animal that drives behavior towards some goal.”
According to Murray, “Motivation is an internal factor that arouses, directs and integrates a person’s behavior.”
Types of Motivation:
- Intrinsic Motivation: Intrinsic motivation is internal. It occurs when people are compelled to do something out of pleasure, importance or desire. Motivation is always intrinsic when the force comes from within oneself.
- Extrinsic Motivation: Extrinsic motivation is external. It occurs when external factors compel the person to do something. Motivation is always extrinsic when external forces, positive or negative produce a behavioral change.
Techniques of Motivation:
- Goal Setting
- Presence of others
- Motivational music, positive attitude and positive self-talk
- Healthy environment
- Coach as a motivator
- Praise and criticism
- Records of success or progress
Meaning, Concept and Types of Aggressions in sports:
In psychology, the term aggression refers to a range of behaviors that can result in both physical and psychological harm to oneself.
Baron and Richardson “any form of behavior directed towards the goal of harming or injuries another living being who in motivated to avoid such treatment.”
Types of Aggressions in sports: There are the following types of aggression in sports:
- Hostile Aggression: In hostile aggression, the main aim is to cause injury to other sportsperson. In simple words, hostile aggression is when the primary aim is to cause physical harm or injury to your opponents.
- Assertive Aggression or Behavior: Assertive behavior is different types of aggression/ aggressive behavior. This is defined as behavior that involves the use of legitimate physical or verbal force to achieve one’s purpose. In assertive aggression or assertive behavior, the intention is to establish dominance rather than to harm the opponent.
- Instrumental Aggression: Instrumental aggression is behavior that has the intent to hurt in order to achieve money, praise or victory. In case of instrumental aggression an athlete may intend to injure the opponent, but the most important goal to be achieved by the aggressive act is to win the competition.
Aggressions and performance: This types behavior is must for best performance in the game.
Aggression is always there in the games and sports to show the superiority and domination of one team over other. This is must in games to some extent because it makes the player strict and perfect. But it should be in limit. If this types of behaviors crosses the limit, it van harm the sportsman sprit. The assertive aggression in the game should be tackled. Sports psychologists agree that aggression can enhance sports performance. In fact, aggression in the field of sports and games comes out of frustration which arises due to goal blockage.