Class 10 Geography Sample Paper

Sample Papers Class 10

We have provided Class 10 Geography Sample Paper as per the latest CBSE examination pattern for the current academic year. The following CBSE Sample Papers for Class 10 Geography has been prepared based on the guess papers issued recently. Students will be able to practice these papers and get good marks in upcoming Geography exams for Class 10.

CBSE Sample Papers for Class 10 Geography

PART – I (30 marks)
Attempt all questions from this Part

1. Study the extract of the Survey of India Map sheet No. 45 D/10 and answer the following questions (Easting 11-21, Northings 13-23) :
(a) Give the four figure grid reference of the settlement of Pamera. 
Answer : Pamera- 1622

(b) Give the six figure grid reference for the surveyed tree North East of Bamba settlement. 
Answer : Bamba- 195146

(c) What is the direct distance in kms between Malgaon and Gulabganj ? 
Answer : The direct distance on the map between Malgaon and Gulabganj is 6.5 cms.
Scale given 2 cm = 1 km
½ × 6.5 = 3.25 kms. distance on the ground.

(d) What is the difference between drainage pattern in grid square 2013 and 1422 ? 
Answer : 2013- Radial, 1422- Dendritic.

(e) Draw the conventional symbols for :
(i) A tehsil boundary
(ii) A temple
Answer : (i) A tehsil boundary
(ii) A temple (–) (Red in colour)

(f) What evidence from the map shows that the region receives seasonal rainfall? 
Answer : The evidences are the presence of broken ground, lined perennial wells and seasonal streams.

(g) What is the main occupation of the people of the region in the map extract? Give reasons for your answer. 
Answer : The main occupation is agriculture. The presence of lined perennial well and yellow cultivable land gives evidence.

(h) Give a reason for each of the following : 
(i) Disappearing streams in grid square 2018.
(ii) Broken ground along the banks of River Sipu.
Answer : cultivable land gives evidence.
(h) (i) It is because of scanty rainfall and high temperature due to which water is evaporated.
(ii) Due to soil erosion when flood occurs during monsoon.

(i) What is the area in square Kms of the region enclosed within Easting 13 and 18 and Northing 17 and 21? 
Answer : Easting 13 and 18 = 5 grids
Northing 17 and 21= 4 grids
Each grid is of 1
Therefore, Area of the region is 5 × 4 = 20 km2.

(j) What is the R.F. of this map? What does it mean?
Answer : The R.F. of the map is 1:50,000.
It means that 1 unit on map is equal to 50,000 units on the ground.

2. On the outline map of India provided :
(a) Mark and name the Standard Meridian of India.
(b) Mark and name Lake Chilka. 
(c) Mark and name river Tungabhadra. 
(d) Mark and name the Aravalli Mountains. 
(e) Mark and name Mount Godwin Austin. 
(f) Mark and name an Offshore Oilfield. 
(g) Shade and name a region covered by Black Soil.
(h) Mark and name Chandigarh. 
(i) Mark and name the winds that bring rain to North Western India in winter.
(j) Shade and label a region of sparse population in Northern India.
Answer : (Image)


3. (a) Mention two characteristics of the South West Monsoons. 
Answer : (a) Two characteristics of the South West Monsoons :
(i) The rainfall is mainly Relief or Orographic.
(ii) The rainfall occurs mainly in summer.

(b) Define : 
(i) Western Disturbances
(ii) Mango Showers
Answer : (i) Western Disturbances : The cyclonic depressions that originate over the Mediterranean Sea and bring good amount of rainfall in the North West part of India in
the winter season.
(ii) Mango Showers : Mango Showers or Cherry Blossoms are also the local winds which blow in Kerala during summers in June. This wind helps in the growth of mango, coffee and tea.

(c) Give a geographical reason for each of the following : 
(i) Chennai has more rainy months but less rainfall than Kochi.
(ii) Shimla is cooler than Delhi in summer.
(iii) Central Maharashtra receives less rainfall than Western Maharashtra.
Answer : (i) Chennai has more rainy months because Chennai receives rainfall in the months of October and November and though less but also receives rainfall from the summer monsoons in the months of June to September but Kochi receives rainfall only from the summer monsoons i.e. from June to September.
(ii) Shimla is situated at a higher altitude than Delhi. Thus, due to lapse rate, as one moves up the altitude, the temperature decreases. 
(iii) Central Maharashtra receives less rainfall than Western Maharashtra because Western Maharashtra lies on the windward side of the Western Ghats whereas Central Maharashtra
lies on the leeward side.

(d) Study the climatic data given below and answer the questions that follow:  (Image)
(i) Calculate the annual range of temperature.
(ii) Calculate the total rainfall during the monsoon season.
(iii) On which coast does the station lie? Give a reason to justify your answer.
Answer : (i) Annual Range of Temperature : 33.1°C –23.1°C = 10.0°C
(ii) Total rainfall = 114.3 cm.
(iii) Station lies on the Eastern Coast because it receives good amount of rain in the winter months of October-December.

4. (a) Give two points of difference between Black and Alluvial Soil. 
Answer : (Image)

(b) Name the process by which Laterite Soil is formed. Give a reason as to why the soil is not suitable for agriculture.
Answer : (b) Laterite soil is formed in-situ as a result of leaching under typical monsoonal conditions with high temperature and heavy rainfall with alternating wet and dry spells.

(c) (i) What is meant by soil conservation? 
(ii) Mention two measures to conserve soil in the hilly terrain.
Answer : (i) Soil Conservation is the effort made by man to prevent soil loss from erosion or reduced fertility caused by over usage.
(ii) (1) Contour Ploughing
(2) Terrace Farming

(d) Give a geographical reason for each of the following : 
(i) Khadar is more fertile than Bangar.
(ii) Red soil is acidic in nature.
(iii) The foothills of the Himalayas are prone to excessive soil erosion.
Answer : (i) Khadar is composed of newer alluvium deposits and is fertile as it is formed of fine silt and clay.
(ii) Red soil is acidic in nature because due to deficiency of lime, nitrogen, phosphorous and humus in the soil.
(iii) It is due to deforestation, floods and uncontrolled grazing of animals.

5. (a) State the climatic conditions required for the growth of Tropical Deciduous forests. 
Answer : (a) The Moist Deciduous Forests :
(i) Rainfall between 100cm to 200cm.
(ii) Temperature between 24°C and 27°C.
The Dry Deciduous Forests
(i) Rainfall between 70 cm to 100 cm.
(ii) Annual Temperature is between 23°C and 27°C.

(b) Mention two benefits of forests. 
Answer : (i) The trees absorb the carbon dioxide and releases oxygen which is used by human beings and animals.
(ii) The trees also help in regulating the water cycle.
(iii) Forests also provide essential products like oils seeds, edible plants, fibres, etc.
(iv) The roots of trees in the forest bind the soil firmly which prevents soil erosion.

(c) (i) State any two characteristics of Tidal forests. 
(ii) Name an area where Tidal forests are found.
Answer : (i) The main characteristics of Tidal forests are-
1. These forests are dense, evergreen and of varying heights.
2. The trees have long roots submerged under water and have pores which help them to breathe during high tide.
3. The tidal tree yields hardwood which is strong and durable and is used for making boats and boxes.
4. The most important tree is the Sundari tree in the Ganga Delta from which the word Sunderbans is coined.
5. The Indian tidal or mangrove forests are considered as the largest mangrove forest in the world. (Any two points)
(ii) The Tidal forests are found in the saline swamps of Sunderbans in West Bengal.

(d) Give a reason for each of the following : 
(i) The forest area has greatly depleted in India.
(ii) The Tropical Evergreen forests are found on the western slope of the Western Ghats.
(iii) Acacia has long roots.
Answer : (i) Increasing population is drawing demands for more food and deforestation for habitation and for agricultural lands.
(ii) The Tropical Evergreen Forests are found on the western slope of Western Ghats because amount of rainfall is more than 200 cm.
(iii) Acacia has long roots so that it can absorb water by reaching deep underground and can survive with less water in a dry environment.

6. (a) Give two reasons why well irrigation is popular in North India. 
Answer : 1. The soil in North India is soft.
2. It is easy to dig well due to flat level land.

(b) Mention two disadvantages of tank irrigation. 
Answer : Two disadvantages of tank irrigation :
(i) In the absence of rainwater during dry season, the tanks become dry and fail to provide water for irrigation.
(ii) Due to deposition of sediments, the tanks get silted up soon and desilting is necessary for making irrigation suitable which is expensive.
(iii) Tanks occupy large fertile areas which otherwise could be used for agricultural purposes.

(c) (i) What is meant by rain water harvesting? 
(ii) Mention any two methods of rain water harvesting.
Answer : (i) Rainwater harvesting is a technique of increasing the recharge of ground water by capturing and storing rain water.
(ii) Two methods of rain water harvesting in India :
1. Surface runoff harvesting
2. Roof Top Water harvesting

(d) Give a reason for each of the following :
(i) Inundation canals are being converted into perennial canals.
(ii) Ground water reserves are depleting at a fast rate.
(iii) Drip irrigation reduces loss of water through evaporation.
Answer : (i) 1. Inundation canal provide water only during rainy season.
2. They are solely dependent on rainfall and irrigate higher regions.
(ii) It is so due to lowering of the water table, reduction of water in streams and lakes, deterioration of water quality and pumping groundwater.
(iii) Drip irrigation reduces loss of water through evaporation because it supplies the water to the roots of the plants slowly through pipes, valves and tubing.

7. (a) Mention two advantages of using nonconventional sources of power. 
Answer : (a) Two advantages of using non-conventional sources of power :
(i) They are renewable and inexhaustible.
(ii) They do not cause any environmental pollution.
(iii) They are inexpensive and easy to maintain.

(b) With reference to the Bhakra Nangal Dam,answer the following: 
(i) Name the river on which it has been constructed.
(ii) Name two states that benefit from this project.
Answer : (i) On river Satluj.
(ii) Punjab, Haryana and Rajasthan benefits from this project.

(c) (i) Name one fossil fuel and mention an area where it is found. 
(ii) Give one disadvantage of using the fossil fuel mentioned.
Answer : (i) Petroleum is a fossil fuel. It is found in the Gujarat-Cambay belt and the Mumbai High offshore zone.
(ii) 1. Petroleum is an expensive product and is in high demand due to its limited supply.
2. It is a natural fossil fuel and nonrenewable.

(d) (i) Name two types of Iron ore mined in India.
(ii) State two uses of copper.
Answer : (i) Haematite and Magnetite are mined in India.
(ii) Uses of Copper :
1. Since copper is a good conductor of electricity, it is used for making electric wires.
2. It is used in automobiles and in defence industries.
3. It is alloyed with nickel and iron to make stainless steel.

8. (a) Mention two problems of Indian Agriculture. 
Answer : (a) Problems of Agriculture in India : 
(i) Lack of adequate irrigation facilities and dependence on monsoon.
(ii) The land holdings are uneconomic due to their small size and as such the yields are low.
(iii) Agriculture is becoming mechanized and requires huge capital investments to purchase machineries, fertilizers, pesticides and high yielding variety seeds. The Indian farmers are poor to buy all these materials.
(iv) A majority of Indian farmers are still dependent on the primitive and poor techniques of producing crops.

(b) Give two differences between intensive and extensive farming. 
Answer : (Image)

(c) Give the geographical requirement for the cultivation of coffee in Karnataka. 
Answer : Geographical requirement for coffee cultivation in Karnataka :
(i) Temperature Between 15°C and 28°C.
(ii) Rainfall Between 150 cm and 200 cm of annual rainfall. Stagnant water is harmful.
(iii) Soil Well drained, rich friable loams containing a good deal of humus and minerals like iron and calcium are ideal for coffee cultivation.

(d) Give a geographical reason for each of the following : 
(i) Millets are known as dry crops.
(ii) Pulses are grown as rotational crops.
(iii) Jute stems must be retted. 
Answer : (i) Millets are known as dry crops because they can grow in areas of low rainfall ranging from 50-100 cms.
(ii) Pulses are grown as rotation crops as they are leguminous crops that fix atmospheric nitrogen in the soil and increase the natural fertility of the soil.
(iii) Jute stems must be retted because it loosens the outer bark and facilitates removal of the fibre from the stalk.

9. (a) With reference to the Bhilai Iron and Steel Plant :
(i) Name its foreign collaborator.
(ii) State the source from where it obtains iron ore and coal.
Answer : (a) (i) Bhilai Iron and Steel Plant is collaborated with erstwhile USSR.
(ii) The plant obtains its-
1. Iron Ore from Dalli Rajhara mines.
2. Coal is obtained from Bokaro, Kargati and Jharia fields in Jharkhand and Korba in Chhattisgarh.

(b) Give two reasons why the cotton textile industry has developed in Mumbai. 
Answer : (i) Regular supply or proximity to raw material.
(ii) Favourable climatic conditions specially the humid climate.
(iii) Good network of road and rail transportation within the country and sea routes for the international market.
(iv) Location of major ports facilitates the export and import facilities.
(v) Availability of cheap and skilled labours.
(vi) Mumbai is a centre of financial and commercial resources.
(vii) Electricity is supplied by the Tata Hydroelectricity system in the Western Ghats to Mumbai.

(c) (i) Mention two advantages of setting up a small scale industry. 
(ii) What is the difference between a public sector and a private sector industry?
Answer : 

(d) Give a reason for each of the following :
(i) Petrochemical products are growing in popularity.
(ii) Sugar mills are located close to sugarcane growing areas.
(iii) The Silk industry has a small market.
Answer : (d) (i) Petrochemical products are growing in popularity because :
1. Petrochemicals are cost effective, economic and cheap.
2. The raw material is easily available and not depended on agricultural raw material. (Any one point)
(ii) The sugar mills are located close to sugarcane growing areas which prevents the loss of sucrose content due to minimum transportation time.
(iii) Silk industry has a small market because it is farm-based, labour intensive with low investment and is mainly concentrated in South India and Assam.

10. (a) Transport is the backbone of a country’s economy. Give two reasons to support the statement. 
Answer : (i) Transportation facilitates utilisation of natural resources lying unutilized in the hills, forests and mines.
(ii) It helps in the process of industrialization and urbanisation.

(b) Give two reasons why airways are used extensively despite being an expensive mode of transport. 
Answer : (i) Air transport is the fastest and most comfortable mode of transport.
(ii) It can easily reach to remote and inaccessible areas like mountains, forests, deserts etc.

(c) Mention three reasons why inland waterways are better developed in Northern India than in Southern India. 
Answer : Inland waterways are better developed in Northern India than in Southern India because-
(i) Northern India has a flat and level land unlike Southern India which is undulating and has many waterfalls and rapids.
(ii) The rivers are perennial and snow-fed.
(iii) Northern rivers are longer.

(d) State three advantages of roadways over railways. 
Answer : (i) Roadways are ideal for short distances as through it every village and hamlet can be reached.
(ii) It is cost effective in comparison to other means of transport.
(iii) It transports people and goods quickly and easily.
(iv) It provides door-to-door services.

11. (a) Mention two reasons for the need of Waste Management. 
Answer : Waste management is needed because :
(i) Improperly stored refuse can cause health, safety and economic problems.
(ii) Transmission of diseases due to accumulation of wastes is a major threat to people and environment.

(b) Define the terms : 
(i) Composting
(ii) Open dumping
Answer : (i) Composting : It is a form of waste disposal where organic waste decomposes naturally under oxygen-rich conditions.
(ii) Open dumping : Waste materials which are dumped in open pits and become the breeding ground for mosquitoes, flies, insects, etc.

(c) (i) What is meant by waste? 
(ii) Mention two sources of waste.
Answer : (i) Waste is unwanted and unused material which is rejected for any further usage.
(ii) Industrial waste, Radioactive wastes and Solid wastes are the sources of waste.

(d) (i) What is the meaning of the 3 R’s in waste management? 
(ii) Give an example for each one of the above.
(iii) Mention any one way by which accumulation of waste can be hazardous for human health.
Answer : (i) The 3 R’s means to Reduce, Reuse and Recycle the wastes.
(ii) 1. Buying products with minimum packaging, borrowing things which are not used often, starting a compost bin, saving energy and water by turning them off when not required are some ways of reducing wastes.
2. Reusing many materials like glass, metal, plastics, cloths, paper, etc. that is used in our day to day life and by reusing old tyres and leathers for making chappals, shoes, water bags, etc.
3. Recycling Bagasse, a by-product of sugarcane, is used for manufacturing paper pulp, for making packaging material of dairy products.
(iii) When the accumulated waste decomposes, it produces large quantity of methane gas which is highly explosive, if not managed properly.