Please refer to Class 12 Geography Sample Paper Term 2 With Solutions Set A below. These Class 12 Geography Sample Papers will help you to get more understanding of the type of questions expected in the upcoming exams. All sample guess papers for Geography Class 12 have been designed as per the latest examination pattern issued by CBSE. Please practice all Term 2 CBSE Sample Papers for Geography in Standard 12.
Sample Paper Term 2 Class 12 Geography With Solutions Set A
1. What do you understand by the term Mechanisation?
Answer: Mechanisation refers to using gadgets which accomplish tasks. Automation (without aid of human thinking during the manufacturing process) is the advanced stage of mechanisation. Automatic factories with feedback and closed loop computer control systems where machines are developed to ‘think’, have sprung up all over the world.
2. Define transport.
Answer: Transport is a service or facility by which people, materials and manufactured goods are physically carried from one location to another. It is an organised industry created to satisfy man’s basic need of mobility. Modern society requires speedy and efficient transport systems to assist in the production, distribution and consumption of goods.
3. Differentiate between trade and trading centre.
Describe quaternary services.
Answer: Trade is essentially buying and selling of items produced elsewhere. All the services in retail and wholesale trading or commerce are specifically intended for profit while The towns and cities where all
these works take place are known as trading centres.
Quaternary activities centre around research, development and may be seen as an advanced form of services involving specialised knowledge, technical skills, and administrative competence.
The Quaternary Sector along with the Tertiary Sector has replaced all primary and secondary employment as the basis for economic growth.
(SOURCE BASED QUESTION)
4. Read the source given below and answer the questions that follows:
‘Household Industries or Cottage Manufacturing’
It is the smallest manufacturing unit. The artisans use local raw materials and simple tools to produce everyday goods in their homes with the help of their family members or parttime labour. Finished products may be for consumption in the same household or, for sale in local (village) markets, or, for barter. Capital and transportation do not wield much influence as this type of manufacturing has low commercial significance and most of the tools are devised locally.
Some common everyday products produced in this sector of manufacturing include foodstuffs, fabrics, mats, containers, tools, furniture, shoes, and figurines from wood lot and forest, shoes, thongs and other articles from leather; pottery and bricks from clays and stones. Goldsmiths make jewellery of gold, silver and bronze. Some artefacts and crafts are made out of bamboo, wood obtained locally from the forests.
4.1. What are the basic characteristics of household industries?
Answer: The artisans use local raw materials and simple tools to produce everyday goods in their homes with the help of their family members or parttime labour.
4.2. Which factors do not influence the cottage manufacturing?
Answer: Capital and transportation do not wield much influence as this type of manufacturing has low commercial significance and most of the tools are devised locally.
4.3. Name some common everyday products produced in the household industries?
Answer: Some common everyday products produced in this sector of manufacturing include foodstuffs, fabrics, mats, containers, tools, furniture, shoes, and figurines from wood lot and forest, shoes, thongs and other articles from leather; pottery and bricks from clays and stones.
SECTION C (SHORT ANSWER)
5. Describe the importance of Trans-Canadian Railway in the economic development of the region.
Answer: (i) This 7,050 km long rail-line in Canada runs from Halifax in the east to Vancouver on the Pacific Coast passing through Montreal, Ottawa, Winnipeg and Calgary.
(ii) It was constructed in 1886, initially as part of an agreement to make British Columbia on the west coast join the Federation of States. Later on, it gained economic significance because it connected the Quebec-Montreal Industrial Region with the wheat belt of the Prairie Region and the Coniferous Forest region in the north.
(iii) Thus each of these regions became complementary to the other. A loop line from Winnipeg to Thunder Bay (Lake Superior) connects this rail-line with one of the important waterways of the world.
(iv) This line is the economic artery of Canada. Wheat and meat are the important exports on this route.
6. Illustrate the importance of radio as a means of mass communication.
Discuss the importance of Inland waterways as a means of transport in India.
Answer: Radio broadcasting started in India in 1923 by the Radio Club of Bombay. Since then, it gained immense popularity and changed the sociocultural life of people. Within no time, it made a place in every household of the country.
(i) Government took this opportunity and brought this popular mode of communication under its control in 1930 under the Indian Broadcasting System. It was changed to All India Radio in 1936 and to Akashwani in 1957.
(i) All India Radio broadcasts a variety of programmes related to information, education and entertainment.
(i) Special news bulletins are also broadcast at specific occasions like session of parliament and state legislatures.
(i) It was the chief mode of transport before the advent of railways. It, however, faced tough competition from road and railway transport. Moreover, diversion of river water for irrigation purposes made them non navigable in large parts of their courses.
(ii) India has 14,500 km of navigable waterways, contributing about 1% to the country’s transportation. It comprises rivers, canals, backwaters, creeks, etc.
(iii) At present, 5,685 km of major rivers are navigable by mechanised flat bottom vessels.
(iv) For the development, maintenance and regulation of national waterways in the country, the Inland Waterways Authority was set up in 1986.
SECTION D (LONG ANSWER)
7. “Outsourcing has created the employment opportunities for the India and other developing countries of the world.”
Support the statement with examples.
Answer: (i) Outsourcing has resulted in the opening up of a large number of call centres in India, China, Eastern Europe, Israel, Philippines and Costa Rica. It has created new jobs in these countries.
(ii) Outsourcing is coming to those countries where cheap and skilled workers are available. These are also outmigrating countries. With the work available through outsourcing, the migration in these countries may come down.
(iii) Outsourcing countries are facing resistance from job-seeking youths in their respective countries. The comparative advantage is the main reason for continuing outsourcing.
(iv) New trends in quinary services include knowledge processing outsourcing (KPO) and ‘home shoring’, the latter as an alternative to outsourcing.
(v) The KPO industry is distinct from Business Process Outsourcing (BPO) as it involves highly skilled workers.
It is information driven knowledge outsourcing. KPO enables companies to create additional business opportunities. Examples of KPOs include research and development (R and D) activities, e-learning, business research, intellectual property (IP) research, legal profession and the banking sector.
8. What is air pollution? How it is affected the health of the people in the country?
What is land degradation? Discuss its causes and processes?
Answer: Contaminants, like dust, fumes, gas, fog, odour, smoke or vapour to the air in substantial proportion and duration that may be harmful to flora and fauna and to property.
(i) Combustion of fossil fuels, mining and industries are the main sources of air pollution. These processes release oxides of sulphur and nitrogen, hydrocarbons, carbon dioxide, carbon monoxide, lead and asbestos.
(ii) Air pollution causes various diseases related to respiratory, nervous and circulatory systems.
(iii) Smoky fog over cities called as urban smog is caused by atmospheric pollution. It proves very harmful to human health.
(iv) Air pollution can also cause acid rains. Rainwater analysis of urban environment has indicated that pH value of the first rain after summer is always lower than the subsequent rains.
Land degradation is generally understood either as a temporary or a permanent.
(i) Soil erosion, waterlogging, salinisation and alkalinisation of land lead to land degradation.
(ii) Though all degraded land may not be wasteland, but unchecked process of degradation may lead to the conversion to wasteland.
(iii) There are a few types of wastelands such as gullied /ravenous land, desertic or coastal sands, barren rocky areas, steep sloping land, and glacial areas, which are primarily caused by natural agents.
(iv) There are other types of degraded lands such as waterlogged and marshy areas, land affected by salinity and alkalinity and land with or without scrub, which have largely been caused by natural as well as human factors.
(v) There are some other types of wastelands such as degraded shifting cultivation area, degraded land under plantation crops, degraded forests, degraded pastures, and mining and industrial wastelands, are caused by human action.
9. What is sustainable development? Explain the concept of development in detail.
Answer: Development that meets the needs of the present without compromising the ability of future generations to meet their own needs is known as sustainable development.
(i) Development is a multi-dimensional concept and signifies the positive, irreversible transformation of the economy, society and environment.
(ii) The concept of development is dynamic and has evolved during the second half of twentieth century. In the post World War II era, the concept of development was synonymous to economic growth which is measured in terms of temporal increase in gross national product (GNP) and per capita income/per capita consumption.
(iii) While dealing with the questions related to redistribution and equity, it was realised that the concept of development cannot be restricted to the economic sphere alone. It also includes the issues such as improving the well-being and living standard of people, availing of the health, education and equality of opportunity and ensuring political and civil rights.
(iv) By 1980s, development emerged as a concept encapsulating wide-spread improvement in social as well as material well-being of all in a society.
(v) The notion of sustainable development emerged in the wake of general rise in the awareness of environmental issues in the late 1960s in Western World. It reflected the concern of people about undesirable effects of industrial development on the environment.
10. On the outline map of India indicate and mark the following features .
(i) Easternmost terminal of East-West Corridor.
(ii) Iron-ore mines of Maharashtra.
(iii) Manganese mines in Karnataka
(iv) Bauxite mines located in Odisha
(v) Singhbhum Copper Mines
(vi) Important node point of Golden Quadrilateral located in Tamil Nadu
Answer: (i) Easternmost terminal of East-West Corridor — Silchar.
(ii) Iron-ore mines of Maharashtra — Ratnagiri
(iii) Manganese mines in Karnataka — Shivamogga (Shimoga)
(iv) Bauxite mines located in Odisha — Koraput
(v) Singhbhum copper Mines — Singhbhum, Jharkhand
(vi) Important node point of Golden Quadrilateral located in Tamil Nadu — Chennai