Please refer to Culture and Socialization Class 11 Sociology Notes and important questions below. The Class 11 Sociology Chapter wise notes have been prepared based on the latest syllabus issued for the current academic year by CBSE. Students should revise these notes and go through important Class 11 Sociology examination questions given below to obtain better marks in exams
Culture and Socialization Class 11 Sociology Notes and Questions
The below Class 11 Culture and Socialization notes have been designed by expert Sociology teachers. These will help you a lot to understand all the important topics given in your NCERT Class 11 Sociology textbook. Refer to Culture and Socialization Notes below which have been designed as per the latest syllabus issued by CBSE and will be very useful for upcoming examinations to help clear your concepts and get better marks in examinations.
Definition of culture
According to Edward Tylor. “Culture is that Complex whole which includes knowledge, belief, art, morals, laws, custom and any other capabilities and habits acquired by man as a member of society” Culture is the man-made part of environment.
Dimensions of culture
Culture has three dimensions or aspects; cognitive, normative and material.
1. Cognitive; cognitive means knowing or perceiving an act. This refers to how we learn to process what we hear and see and to give it meaning. For example, identifying the ring tone of a cell phone as ours, or identifying the cartoon of a politician.
2. Normative; this refers to the rules of contact. Eg: not opening others letters, performing rituals at death etc.
3. Material; this includes any activity with the help of materials. Materials include tools or machines. Eg: internet chatting and designing Kolam using rice- flour. Cultural Lag
Material aspects of culture change rapidly, while non material aspects change very slowly. There exists a wide gap between these two aspects. This condition is called cultural lag.
Culture and Identity
identities are not inherited. Individuals and groups form their identity through their relationship with others. The identity of an individual gets imparted through the social roles he/she plays.
A culture has many sub cultures. Sub cultures have their own style, taste and association. They can be identified through their speech, dress codes, music or manner of interaction etc.
Ethnocentrism is the application of one’s own cultural values in evaluating the behaviour and beliefs of people from other cultures. The basis of this concept is the thought that our culture is superior to that of others.
Cosmopolitanism is the opposite of ethnocentrism. It values other cultures for their difference. An individual with cosmopolitan outlooks does not evaluate the values and beliefs of other people on the basis of his/her own culture. Cosmopolitanism respects and accommodates different cultures.
Cultural change is the way in which societies change their patterns of culture. It can occur through changes in the natural environment or contact with other cultures. Cultural change may be revolutionary also. When a culture transforms rapidly, its values and meaning systems undergo radical changes and thus revolutionary changes take place.
Eg: French Revolution.
Socialisation is the most important process in the life of an individual. This process extending from birth to death of human beings. Socialisation can be defined as a process by which the helpless infant gradually becomes a self-aware, knowledgable and skilled person in the ways of culture into which he/she is born.
Agencies of Socialisation
A child is socialised by several agencies like family, peer group, school, mass media, neighbourhood, occupational group, social class, caste, region, religion etc.
The following are the main agencies of socialisation;
2. Peer group
4. Mass media
5. Other agencies
family is the first agent of socialisation. The process of socialisation begins from family. In most traditional societies, the individual’s social position is determined by the family.
peer groups are friendship groups of children of a similar age. The word peer means equal. Friendly relations established between young children may be egalitarian.
Schools are important agencies of socialisation. Knowledge and values imparted by teachers help children in the process of socialisation. Sociologists have pointed out that there is a hidden curriculum in schools along with the formal curriculum.
Today, mass media has become an integral part of our daily life. Television, Radio, Print media, Social media, etc. are important mass media. The media can make the access to information more democratic.
Other socialising agencies
Besides the above mentioned socialising agencies, religion, law, rituals, region, occupational group, social class, caste etc. are other agencies of socialisation.