Depreciation Provisions and Reserves Class 11 Accountancy Exam Questions

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Class 11 Accountancy Exam Questions Depreciation Provisions and Reserves

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Depreciation – Business is established for an indefinite period. Fixed assets are, therefore,acquired for its use. Fixed assets increase the earning capacity of business. These are constantly used in business. The assets lose their value gradually due to constant use. This decrease in value of asset is known as depreciation.
“Depreciation is defined as the gradual and permanent diminution in the value of assets due to wear and tear, use or abuse or efflux of time”

Depletion/Exhaustion – Some assets are of wasting nature due to constant extraction of raw materials. By extraction of natural resources, their deposits are depleted. Decrease in such mineral wealth due to extraction is termed as depletion. Mines, quarries, oil wells etc. come under this category.

Amortization – Decrease in the value of intangible assets like patents, copyright, trademark etc.

Causes of depreciation

1. Wear and tear – Constant use of assets results in wear and tear especially in case of machinery, furniture, vehicles etc.
2. Expiration of legal rights – Certain categories of assets lose their value after the expiry. Examples of such assets are patents, copyrights, leases, etc.
3. Obsolescence – Due to change in fashion or new inventions, some assets may be discarded before their life time.
4. Abnormal factors – Decline in the usefulness of the asset may be caused by abnormal factors such as accidents due to fire, earthquake, floods, etc. Eg: a car which has been repaired after an accident will not fetch the same price in the market even if it has not been used.
5. Passage of time – Some assets decrease in value merely because of passage of time. E.g. motor vehicles.

Need for depreciation

1. Matching costs and revenue – The assets such as plant and machinery, furniture etc.
are used in the business to earn income. So the depreciation to such assets through wear and tear should be considered as business loss. Therefore, it should be charged to profit and loss account like any other business expense to arrive at the true profit or loss.
2. Consideration of Tax – As per Income Tax Act 1961, depreciation is deductible expense. If depreciation is not charged, book profit will be higher than the actual profit which results into the excess payment of tax.
3. True and fair financial position – Since the value of assets falls due to depreciation,fixed assets should be shown at their book value in the balance sheet, to disclose the true position of the business.
4. To retain funds for replacement – In order to replace an asset after its life period, every year an amount equal to depreciation is retained in the business and will accumulate year after year. This accumulated fund can be used for replacement of asset.
5. Compliance with law – According to Companies Act, it is an obligation to joint stock companies to provide depreciation on their fixed assets.
Factors affecting the amount of Depreciation – The amount of depreciation is calculated after giving due consideration to the following parameters:-
1. Cost of the asset – It refers to the purchase price plus all expenses of acquiring and installing the asset. i.e., Cost of asset = Purchase price + transportation charges + Installation charges + Brokerage etc.
2. Estimated net residual value – This is the value which estimated to be realized on sale of the assets at the end of its useful life. It is also called scrap value, breakup value or salvage value. While determining scrap value, the cost to be spent in disposal of asset should deducted.
3. Depreciable cost – It is calculated as by deducting scrap value from the cost of asset.
4. Estimated useful life – It means the period for which assets can be effectively utilized.
It is also called economic life of an asset. It may be calculated in terms of years,
months, hours, units of output, running kilometers etc.
Methods of calculating depreciation
1. Straight line method / Fixed installment method – Under this method, a fixed
percentage on the original cost of the asset is written off every year so that the value of the asset becomes zero at the end of its life period. The amount of depreciation charged annually will be constant. This method is useful when the service rendered by the asset is uniform from year to year.  

Advantages of Straight line method

a. Simplicity
b. Equal distribution of depreciation to P/L Account throughout the life of asset.
c. Asset is completely written off.

Disadvantages of straight line method

a. Difficulty in calculation when additional assets are purchased.
b. Uneven charge to P/L Account – Total charge of depreciation and repairs on assets will
be lighter in the earlier years and heavier in the later year years.
c. Unrealistic assumption – that the asset gives equal result over different years.

2. Diminishing or written down value method – Under this method, a fixed percentage is written off every year on the book value of asset at the beginning of the year, i.e., original cost less depreciation provided till date. As the book value or written down value is diminishing each year, the amount of depreciation in each installment will also be diminishing. In other words, rate of depreciation remains fixed, while the amount of depreciation charged goes on diminishing with the passage of time.

Advantages of Written Down Value Method:

1. Realistic – Higher depreciation is charged in earlier years when asset’s utility is higher as compared to last years.
2. Equal burden – It results into almost equal burden of depreciation and repair expenses taken together every year.
3. Tax purpose – Income Tax Act accept this method.
4. Loss due to obsolescence gets reduced – because a large portion of cost is written off in earlier years.
5. Suitable for long lasting assets – which require increased repair expenses in later

Limitations of Written Down Value Method

1. Depreciable cost cannot be fully written off – So that the value of asset never be zero.
2. Difficult to find a suitable rate of depreciation
Differences between fixed installment method and diminishing balance method 

Methods of Recording Depreciation

1. Charging depreciation to asset account – Under this method depreciation is
deducted from the cost of asset (credited to asset a/c) and charged (debited) to profit and loss account.

Accounting Treatments:

a. For recording purchase of asset (only in the year of purchase)
Asset A/c            Dr (Cost of asset including installation, freight, etc.)
       To Bank/Vendor A/c
b. Following two entries are recorded at the end of every year:
(i) For deducting depreciation amount from the cost of the asset.
Depreciation A/c        Dr (with the amount of depreciation)
To Asset A/c

(ii) For charging depreciation to profit and loss account.
Profit & Loss A/c           Dr (with the amount of depreciation)
To Depreciation A/c
Balance Sheet Treatment –
 When this method is used, the fixed asset appears at its net book value (i.e. cost less depreciation charged till date) on the asset side of the balance sheet and not at its original cost (also known as historical cost).
2. Creating Provision for depreciation/Accumulated depreciation account – Under this method, the asset is shown in the balance sheet at its original cost throughout its useful life and depreciation is accumulated on a separate account called ‘Provision for depreciation or Accumulated depreciation’ account.
Accounting Treatments:
a) For recording purchase of asset (only in the year of purchase)
Asset A/c          Dr         (Cost of asset including installation, expenses etc.)
To Bank/Vendor A/c         (cash/credit purchase)

b) Following two journal entries are recorded at the end of each year:
(i) For crediting depreciation amount to provision for depreciation account
Depreciation A/c Dr            (with the amount of depreciation)
To Provision for depreciation A/c

(ii)For charging depreciation to profit and loss account
Profit & Loss A/c Dr (with the amount of depreciation)
         To Depreciation A/c

Balance sheet treatment – In the balance sheet, the fixed asset continues to appear at its original cost on the asset side. The depreciation charged till that date appears in the provision for depreciation account, which is shown on the “liabilities side” of the balance sheet.
Disposal of Asset
1. Sale of asset as scrap
Bank A/c Dr
To Asset A/c

2. Transfer of balance in asset account
(a) In case of profit
         Asset A/c Dr
           To Profit and Loss A/c
(b) In case of loss
         Profit and Loss A/c       Dr
               To Asset A/c

In case, the provision for depreciation account has been made, transfer the balance of the provision for depreciation account to the asset account before passing the above entries by recording the following journal entry:

Provision for depreciation A/c      Dr
            To Asset A/c

       Section – II Reserves and Provisions

Every business concern may like to provide for contingencies – both unforeseen and expected. When we are not sure about the nature or extent of contingencies, they are known as unforeseen contingencies. E.g. amount set apart for meeting a possible reduction in dividend rate because of insufficient profits. Expected contingencies are known to a business but whose amount cannot be determined with reasonable accuracy. E.g. amount set apart for meeting possible loss on account of bad debts.

The amount set apart for meeting unforeseen contingencies is known as Reserve and for the expected contingencies is known as Provision.

Significance – A business enterprise would like to provide for meeting its known liabilities which will occur in future. It may also think for retaining some profits, which would have been otherwise drawn by the proprietor, in order to conserve business resources to meet certain eventualities in future and to strengthen its financial position. This is the logic behind creating reserves and provisions.

The amount which is set apart may be to:

a. Meet a future liability or loss.
b. Fulfill certain specific requirements like repairs and renewals of assets.
c. Strengthen the financial position of business.
d. Replace an asset
e. Redeem a future liability.

Provisions – There are certain expenses or losses which are related to the current accounting period but amount of which is not known with certainty because they are not ye incurred. It is necessary to make provision for such items for ascertaining true net profit. Examples of provisions are:
a. Provision for depreciation
b. Provision for bad and doubtful debts
c. Provision for taxation
d. Provision for discount or debtors
e. Provision for repairs and renewals

It must be noted that the amount of provision for expense and loss is a charge against profits of the current period. Therefore, it is created by debiting the profit and loss account.
Accounting treatment (journal entry) is shown below: 

In the balance sheet, the amount of provision may be shown either by way of deduction from the concerned asset on the assets side or by way of showing the same on the liabilities side of the balance sheet along with current liabilities.

Provision for doubtful debts is shown as a deduction from the amount of sundry debtors and provision for depreciations as a deduction from concerned fixed asset in the balance sheet.
Whereas, provision for taxes and provision for repairs and renewals are shown on the liabilities side of the balance sheet.

Reserves – A part of profit may be set aside and retained in the business to provide for certain future needs like growth and expansion or to meet future contingencies such as workmen compensation etc. Therefore it is an appropriation of profit to strengthen the financial position of the business. Reserve is not a charge against profit as it is not meant to cover any known liability or expected loss in future. It is shown under the head Reserves and Surplus on the liabilities side of the balance sheet after capital.

General reserve, Workmen compensation fund, Investment fluctuation fund, Capital reserve, Dividend equalization reserve, Reserve for redemption of debenture etc. are the examples for reserves.

Differences between reserves and provisions 

    Types of Reserves

A reserve is created by retention of profit of the business can be for either a general or a specific purpose.

1. General Reserve – When the purpose for which reserve is created is not specified, it is called General Reserve. It is also termed as free reserve because the management can freely utilize it for any purpose. This reserve strengthens the financial position of the business.

2. Specific Reserve – It is created for some specific purpose and can be utilized only for that purpose. Examples:
i. Dividend equalization reserve – it is to stablise or maintain dividend rate. In the year of high profit, amount is transferred to dividend equalization reserve. In the year of low profit, this reserve amount is used to maintain
the rate of dividend.
ii. Workmen compensation fund – It is created to provide for claims of the workers due to accident.
iii. Investment fluctuation fund – It is created to make for decline in the value of investment due to market fluctuations.
iv. Debenture redemption reserve – It is to provide fund for redemption of debentures.
Reserves are also classified as revenue and capital reserves according to the nature of the profit out of which they are created.
1. Revenue Reserves – This reserve is created from rev enue profits which arise out of the normal operating activities of the business and are otherwise freely available for distribution
as dividend. Examples:
a.General reserve
b.Workmen compensation fund
c.Investment fluctuation fund
d.Dividend equalization reserve
e.Debenture redemption reserve.
2. Capital Reserve – This is created out of capital profits which do not arise from the normal  operating activities. Such reserves are not available for distribution as dividend. These reserves can be used for writing off capital losses or issue of bonus shares in case of a company. Examples:
a.Premium of issue of shares or debentures
b.Profit on sale of fixed assets
c.Profit on redemption of debentures
d.Profit on revaluation of fixed asset and liabilities
e.Profits prior to incorporation
f. Profit on reissue of forfeited shares

Differences between Revenue and Capital Reserve

Importance of Reserves

1. To meet future contingencies.
2. Strengthening the financial position of the business.
3. Redeeming long term liabilities like debentures etc.

Secret Reserve 

This is a reserve which does not appear in the balance sheet. It may help to reduce the disclosed profits and to reduce tax liability. It can be added with the profits during lean periods to show high profit. This reserve is called as “Secret Reserve”, as it is not known to the outsiders. It can be created by way of:
1. Charging higher depreciation than required.
2. Undervaluation inventories.
3. Charging capital expenditure to profit and loss account.
4. Making excessive provision for doubtful debts.

Depreciation Provisions and Reserves Class 11 Accountancy Exam Questions