Please refer to the Environment and Natural Resources Class 12 Political Science Exam Questions provided below. These questions and answers for Class 12 Political Science have been designed based on the past trend of questions and important topics in your class 12 Political Science books. You should go through all Class 12 Political Science Important Questions provided by our teachers which will help you to get more marks in upcoming exams.
Class 12 Political Science Exam Questions Environment and Natural Resources
Class 12 Political Science students should read and understand the important questions and answers provided below for Environment and Natural Resources which will help them to understand all important and difficult topics.
Question. India signed and ratified the 1997 Kyoto protocol in –
(a) June 2002
(b) August 2002
(c) September 2002
(d) February 2004
Question. The earth summit was held in –
(a) May 1991
(c) May 1992
(d) June 1992
Question. Natural Forests –
(a) help stabilize the climate
(b) moderate water supplies
(c) harbour a majority of the planet?s bio diversity on the Land
(d) All of the above
Question. The World Council of Indigenous people was formed in –
Question. Depletion of the amount of ozone poses a real danger to –
(b) human health
(c) Ecosystems and human health
(d) none of the above
Fill in the Blanks:
Question. The United Nations Framework Convention on Climate change was held in ______ .
Question. World Environment day is celebrated each year on _____________ .
Very short answer type question :
Question. What is the most obvious threat to the survival of indigenous people?
Ans. The loss of land. Which also means the loss of an economic resource base is the most obvious threat to the survival of indigenous people.
Question. What was the significance of the 1992 earth summit?
Ans. The 1992 earth summit has brought environmental issue to the centre-stage of global politics.
Question. What is Kyoto Protocol?
Ans. The Kyoto protocol is an international agreement setting targets for industrialised countries to cut their green house gas emissions. The protocol was agreed to in 1997 in Kyoto in Japan, based on principles set out in UNFCCC.
Question. What is krill?
Ans. Krill is central to marine food chain and upon which other animal are dependent.
Question. What are green house gasses? What are their effects?
Ans. Certain gases like carbon dioxide, methane, Hydrofluoric carbons, etc are green house gases. They are considered at least partly responsible for global warming. Global warming is rise in atmospheric temperature which may have catastrophic consequences for life on earth.
Question. What do you mean by marine and coastal degradation?
Ans. Disposal of wastes, particularly sewage, directly into oceans is a major source of pressure on marine and coastal areas population growth and tourism is increasing the extent of the coastal degradation.
Question. Why India, China and other developing countries were exempted from the requirements of the Kyoto protocol?
Ans. India, China and other developing countries were exempted from the requirements of the Kyoto protocol because their contribution to the emission of green house gases during the industrialisation period was not significant.
Question. What do you mean by „Commons??
Ans. Commons are those resources which are not owned by any one but rather shared by a community. This could be a park or a river, a community centre, a common room.
Question. Define “Sustainable development”?
Ans. Development that meets the needs of the people today without compromising the ability of future generations to meet their own needs is termed as sustainable development.
Question. What are included in the global commons?
Ans. Global commons include the earth?s atmosphere, Antarctica the ocean floor, and outer space.
Short answer type question:
Question. Water is one of the most important resources that is relevant to global politics. Explain with examples?
Ans. Water is a crucial resource that is relevant to politics. Regional variations and the increasing scarcity of fresh water in some parts of the world point to the possibility of disagreements over shared water resources as a leading source of conflicts in the 21st century.‘
Question. Write a note on UNEP?
Ans. United Nations Environment Programme (UNEP) – UNEP?s mandate is to provide leadership and encourage partnership in caring for the environment by inspiring, informing and enabling nations and peoples to improve their quality of life without compromising that of future generations. The site promotes the range of UNEP initiatives, including the environmental calendar, world environment day, Global 500 awards UNEP sasakawa environment prize, clean up the world campaign and the UNEP photographic competition. Lint to the environmental economic publications database, environmental education programs worldwide and other products and services are also included.
Question. Oil continues to be the most important resource in global strategy. Explain?
Ans. Oil continues to be the most important resource in global strategy. The global economy relied on oil for much of the 20th century as a portable and in dispensable fuel. The immense wealth associated with oil generates political struggles to control it and history petroleum is also the history of war and straggle.
Now here is this more obviously the case than in West Asia, and Central Asia. West Asia specifically the Gulf region, accounts for about 30 percent of global oil production, But it has about 64 percent of the planet?s known reserves, and is there for the only region able to satisfy any substantial rise in oil demand. Saudi Arabia has a quarter of the world?s total reserves are second only to Saudi Arabia?s and since substantial portions of Iraq territory are yet to be fully explored, there is a fair chance that actual reserves might be for Larger. The United States, Europe, Japan and increasingly Indian and China which consume this petroleum are located at considerable distance from the region.
Question. Write a note on Antarctica?
Ans. Antarctica: The Antarctica continental region extends over 14 million square kilometers and comprises 26 percent of the world?s wilderness area, representing 90 percent of all terrestrial ice and 70 percent of planetary fresh water. The Antarctica also extends to a further 36 million square kilometers of ocean it has limited terrestrial life and a highly
productive marine ecosystem comprising a few plants (e.g. microscopic alage, fungi and lichen) marine mammals, fish and hordes of birds adapted to harsh conditions, as well as the krill. Which is central to marine food chain and upon which other animals are dependent. The Antarctica plays on important role in maintaining climatic equilibrium, and deep ice cores provide an important source of information about green house gas concentrations and atmospheric temperatures of hundreds and thousands of years ago.
Long answer type question:
Question. What are the hazards of population explosion in developing countries?
Ans. Hazards of population explosion in developing countries – Economists, demographers and scientists hold different view as regards the relationship between population and economic growth while some of the thinkers hold the view that population is an engine of economic development and it promotes economic development others that population retards it.
The protagonists believe that population is an important determinant of economic growth. They treat population as human capital which help in the proper exploitation of natural resources, and thus raises the production potential of a country. Large population, it gets suitable job opportunities, can raise the level of domestic output, population also creates demand for good services, which in turn determines the size of market, Level of investment output and employment However, in the case of developing countries population explosion create many hazards or problem for them.
1. Poverty – rising population has largely offset increase in production both agricultural and industrial goods as a result. The per capita income is rising at slow pace; in fact it is increasing poverty in developing countries.
2. Malnutrition – population explosion is the basic cause of malnutrition.
3. Increasing population creates housing problem and economic backwardness in developing countries.
4. Population growth, through increased consumption of energy resources and aggravates the energy crisis in developing countries
5. Rising population worses the unemployment problem in developing countries.
6. Population explosion has negative impact on industrialization in developing countries.
7. Increase in almost all developing countries there for the size of agricultural holding decreases and it adversely affect the farm productivity.