Please refer to Environment and Society Class 11 Sociology Notes and important questions below. The Class 11 Sociology Chapter wise notes have been prepared based on the latest syllabus issued for the current academic year by CBSE. Students should revise these notes and go through important Class 11 Sociology examination questions given below to obtain better marks in exams
Environment and Society Class 11 Sociology Notes and Questions
The below Class 11 Environment and Society notes have been designed by expert Sociology teachers. These will help you a lot to understand all the important topics given in your NCERT Class 11 Sociology textbook. Refer to Environment and Society Notes below which have been designed as per the latest syllabus issued by CBSE and will be very useful for upcoming examinations to help clear your concepts and get better marks in examinations.
Every society has an ecological base. The web of physical and biological systems and processes is called ecology. Humans are the part of this systems. Mountains, rivers, plains, oceans, plants and flora and fauna are a part of the ecology.
Social environment emerge from the interaction between bio-physical ecology and human interventions. This is two way process. Nature shapes society and society shapes nature.
The interaction between the environment and society is shaped by nature. Property relations determine how and by whom natural resources can be used. For example, the government has the power to decide what to do with the forest owned by it.
We live in risk societies. Complex industrial technologies and mode of organisation require sophisticated management systems which are often fragile and vulnerable to error. The occurrence of nuclear disasters like Chernobyl, industrial accidents like Bhopal, and Mad Cow disease in Europe shows the dangers in industrial environment.
Social Values and Norms
The social values and norms reflected in the different relationship between environment and society. The capitalist values support the commodification of nature. The socialist values stands for justice and equality. The religious values inspired certain communities to protected the sacred forests(groves) and species.
Major Environmental Problems and Risks
The following are the major environmental problems and risks.
1. Resource Depletion
3. Global Warming
4. Genetically Modified Organisms
5. Natural and man-made Environmental Disasters
The excessive use of non-renewable natural resources is one of the most serious environmental problems. For example, The depletion of water, top soil, biodiversity habitats, etc.
There are three types of pollution- Air pollution, Water pollution, Noise pollution.
Air pollution: Air pollution is a major environmental problems in urban and rural areas. The sources of air pollution include emission from industries and vehicles.
Water pollution: Water pollution is a serious environmental problem. It affects the surface as well as ground water.
Noise pollution: Noise pollution creates a lot of problems in cities. It creates different types of health problems.
Global warming is caused by greenhouse gases. The emitted green house gases such as carbon dioxide, methane, etc. Global warming affects the ecological balance. It Creates uncertainties and fluctuation in climates across the world.
Genetically Modified Organisms
The technique of producing new characteristics in species by importing the genes of one species into another is called genetic modification. Multi-national companies use this techniques to create sterile seeds. It will prevent the farmers from reusing them.
Natural and Man-made Environmental Disasters
Both natural and man-made disasters create a lot of problems in our environment. Tsunami and Bhopal Disaster are the examples of natural and man-made environmental disasters respectively.
Environmental Problems also Social Problems
Many a time environmental problems change into social problems. Some environmental problems are universal. Such environmental problems will create public interest. But the sociological analysis shows the attempts to protect the public interest are not useful to all. The activities in the name of protecting the public interest actually serve the interests of the politically and economically powerful groups. They hurt the interest of the poor and politically weak.
Murray Bookchin, a political philosopher, is the founder of the institute for Social Ecology. Social ecology points out that the social relations have an important role in shaping environmental perceptions. Different social groups have different approaches and relations with the environment.