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Please refer to Introducing Western Sociologists Class 11 Sociology Notes and important questions below. The Class 11 Sociology Chapter wise notes have been prepared based on the latest syllabus issued for the current academic year by CBSE. Students should revise these notes and go through important Class 11 Sociology examination questions given below to obtain better marks in exams
Introducing Western Sociologists Class 11 Sociology Notes and Questions
The below Class 11 Introducing Western Sociologists notes have been designed by expert Sociology teachers. These will help you a lot to understand all the important topics given in your NCERT Class 11 Sociology textbook. Refer to Introducing Western Sociologists Notes below which have been designed as per the latest syllabus issued by CBSE and will be very useful for upcoming examinations to help clear your concepts and get better marks in examinations.
Sociology is sometimes called the child of the ‘age of revolution’. This is because three revolutions paved the way for the emergence of sociology.
1) The Enlightenment, or the scientific revolution
2) The French Revolution
3) The Industrial Revolution.
The Enlightenment (scientific revolution)
During the late 17th and 18tth centuries, Western Europe saw the emergence of new ways of thinking about the world. The new philosophies established the human being at the centre of the universe. Rational thought as the central feature of the human being. Enlightenment helped to develop, secular, scientific and humanistic attitudes.
The French Revolution-1789
The French Revolution (1789) announced the arrival of political sovereignty at the level of individuals as well as nation-states. Declaration of Human Rights asserted the equality of all citizens and questioned the legitimacy of privileges inherited by birth. The ideals of the French Revolution-liberty, equality and fraternity -became the watchwords of the modern state.
The Industrial Revolution
Industrial Revolution had two major aspects.
1.The first was the systematic application of science and technology to industrial production.
2.Industrial revolution also evolved new ways of organising labour and markets Factory based production and urban domination over the rural. Cities and towns became the dominant forms of human settlement. Slums are formed at the outskirts of the towns. Thus Sociology-‘science of the new industrial society’ was formed.
Karl Marx (1818-1883)
Karl Heinrich Marx was a German philosopher, economist, historian, sociologist, political theorist, journalist and socialist revolutionary.
1. The Manifesto of the Communist Party (1948)
2. A Contribution to the Critique of Political Economy (1859)
3. Das Capital, Vol. I(1867)
Karl Marx argued that people who occupy the same position in the social production process will eventually form a class. By virtue of their location in the production process and in property relations, they share the same interests and objectives, even though they may not recognise this immediately.
Marx believed that class struggle was the major driving force of change in society. In The Communist Manifesto Marx and Engels presented their views , Its opening lines declare, ‘The history of all hitherto existing societies is the history of class struggle’. As society evolved from the primitive to the modern through distinct phases, each characterised by particular kinds of conflict between the oppressor and oppressed classes.In capitalism the bourgeoisie (or capitalists) owned all the means of production, workers had no choice but to sell their labour for wages in order to survive, because they had nothing else.
Emile Durkheim (1858-1917)
Emile Durkheim may be considered as the founder of sociology as a formal discipline as he was the first to become a Professor of Sociology in Paris in 1913. Durkheim cherished the idea of developing a secular understanding of religion. in his last book, The Elementary Forms of Religious Life. His first book was The division of labour in society. He use of a new kind of empirical data is in his study of Suicide.
Division of Labour in Society
In his first book, Division of Labour in Society, Durkheim demonstrated his method of analysis to explain the evolution of society from the primitive to the modern. He classified a society by the nature of social solidarity which existed in that society. He argued that while a primitive society was organised according to ‘mechanical’ solidarity, modern society was based on ‘organic’ solidarity.
Mechanical solidarity and Organic solidarity
The following are the main differences between mechanical solidarity and organic solidarity.
Max Weber (1864-1920)
According to Max weber, there are three types of authorities.
Traditional Authority: source of traditional authority was custom and precedence.
Charismatic Authority: charismatic authority derived from divine sources or the ‘gift of grace’,
Rational-legal Authority: rational-legal authority was based on legal demarcation of authority.
Rational- legal authority which prevailed in modern times was epitomised in the bureaucracy.
Bureaucracy is a mode of organisation which premised on the separation of the public from the domestic world. This meant that behaviour in the public domain was regulated by rules and regulations Bureaucratic authority is characterised by these features:
(i) Functioning of Officials;
(ii) Hierarchical Ordering of Positions;
(iii) Reliance on Written Document
(iv) Office Management; and
(v) Conduct in Office.
Functioning of Officials: Officials have fixed areas of official jurisdiction based on certain rules and regulations. The regular activities of the bureaucratic organisation are distributed as official duties.
Hierarchical Ordering of Positions: There would be a hierarchy of offices in Bureaucracy. This hierarchy is formed on the basis of authority and positions. In this system, the higher officials supervise the lower one.
Reliance on Written Document: The management of bureaucratic organisation is carried out on the basis of written documents. These files are preserved as records.
Office Management: Office management is specialised and modern activity. It requires trained and skilled personnels to conduct operations.
Conduct in Office: An official’s conduct in office is controlled by rules and regulations. He/She is responsible for misbehavior.
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