Objective Type Questions
Question. Which one of the following states has the lowest road density?
(b) Jammu & Kasmir
(c) Arunachal Pradesh
Answer : (b) Jammu & Kasmir
Question. Which one of the following states is not connected with the HVJ pipeline ?
(a) Madhya Pradesh
(d) Uttar Pradesh
Answer : (b) Maharashtra
Question. The air transport was nationalised in ____________ .
Answer : (c) 1953
Question. Which one of the following is contributing to large amount of foreign exchange.
(a) Export of gold jewellery?
(b) Export of petroleum products
(c) Export of engineering goods
(d) Export of information technology
Answer : (d) Export of information technology
Question. Which one of the following rivers is declared as National Waterway No. 1 ?
Answer : (d) Ganga
Question. In which language are maximum number of newspapers published in India ?
Answer : (c) Hindi
Question. Difference between the total value of exports and imports is called
(a) Balance of Payment
(b) Balance of Trade
(c) Surplus Budget
(d) Deficit Balance
Answer : (b) Balance of Trade
Question. Which two of the following extreme locations are connected by the east-west corridor ?
(a) Mumbai and Nagpur
(b) Silcher and Porbandar
(c) Mumbai and Kolkata
(d) Nagpur and Siligudi
Answer : (b) Silcher and Porbandar
Question. Which one of the following ports is the deepest land-locked and well-protected port along the east coast ?
Answer : (d) Vishakhapatnam
Question. Which one of the following countries is the largest producer of feature films in the world ?
Answer : (d) India
Very Short Answer Type Questions
Question. What is meant by ‘Pradhan Mantri Grameen Sadak Yojna’ ?
Answer : ‘Pradhan Mantri Grameen Sadak Yojna’ provides special provisions to every village in the country and links it to a major town in the country by an all season commutable road.
Question. Which factors influence the distribution pattern of the railway network in the country ?
Answer : Physiographic, economic and administrative factors influence the distribution pattern of the railway network in the country.
Question. What is pipeline transport network ?
Answer : Pipeline transport network is used for transporting crude oil, petroleum products and natural gas from oil and natural gas fields to refineries, fertilizer factories and big thermal plants.
Question. __________ is the authority to certify both Indian and foreign films.
__________ is an umbrella programme to prepare for a knowledge based transformation.
Answer : The Central Board of Film Certification.
Short Answer Type Questions
Question. What is the significance of the title ‘Lifelines of National economy’ ? OR Why are the means of transportation and communication known as the lifeline of a nation and its economy ?
Answer : The pace of development of any country depends upon the production of goods and services as well as their movement over space. Movement of these goods and service can be over three domains of earth i.e., land, water and air. Therefore, efficient means of transport are pre-requisites for fast development. They connect one part of the country to the other part and help the industries to get the raw materials as well as the finished products. It also develops a nexus among different cultures and religions. Agriculture also depends on transportation. Thus, they are known as the lifeline of an economy.
Question. ‘‘Roadways have an edge over Railways.’’ Support the statement with examples.
Answer : Roadways have an edge over Railways because of following reason:
(i) Road transport operating cost is cheaper than rail transport.
(ii) Road transport is easy to access in hilly areas whereas in rail transport it’s difficult to reach such places.
(iii) Door to door transportation can only be provided by roadways.
(iv) Construction and maintenance cost is less in road transport whereas it’s more in rail transport.
(v) Road transport is better than rail transport to transport goods for short distance. [Any Three]
Question. ‘‘The advancement of international trade of a country is an index of its economic development.’’ Justify the statement.
Answer : Advancement of international trade of a country is an index of economic development :
(i) As no country is self sufficient in all resources, it cannot survive without international trade.
(ii) If the balance of international trade is favourable, a country will be able to earn more foreign exchange.
(iii) International trade encourages a country to develop secondary and tertiary sectors for exporting good which can fetch more foreign exchange.
Question. Explain the importance of railways as the principal mode of transportation for freight and passengers in India.
Answer : The importance of railways as the principal mode of transportation for freight and passengers in India is :
(i) Railways make it possible to conduct multifarious activities like business, sightseeing, pilgrimage along with transportation of goods.
(ii) It is suitable for long distance travel.
(iii) Plays an important role in national integration.
(iv) Railways bind the economic life of the country.
(v) It accelerates the development of the industry and agriculture.
(vi) Today the railways have become more important than all other means of transport put together.
Question. Describe the rural roads in India.
Answer : (i) Rural roads link rural areas and villages with towns.
(ii) These roads received special impetus under the Pradhan Mantri Grameen Sadak Yojana.
(iii) Special provisions are made so that every village in the country is linked to a major town in the country by an all season motorable road.
Question. Why is air travel preferred in the north-eastern stas of India? Explain.
Answer : Air transport is more popular in north-eastern India because:
(i) Big and wide rivers are present there, due to which rail or road bridges over them are difficult and costly to construct. These rivers also get flooded frequently, due to which surface communication links are damaged.
(ii) This area has dissected relief features, preventing durable construction of rail and road links.
(iii) Dense forests in this region create many difficulties in the construction of railway lines and roads.
Question. Why are metalled roads better than unmetalled roads? What is the role of border roads and national highways in transportation?
Answer : (i) Metalled roads are made of either cement, concrete or even bitumen of coal therefore, these are durable over the unmetalled road. Unmetalled roads go out of use in rainy season.
(ii) Border roads play an important role in connecting strategically important difficult areas and help in the economic development of the area. National Highways are the primary road system which links extreme parts of the country.
Question. Explain any three major problems faced by Indian Railways.
Answer : Problems faced by Indian railways are:
(i) It lacks repair and maintenance of tracks and bridges.
(ii) Shifting from one gauge to another is a problem.
(iii) Rail traffic has increased and the old tracks are not able to carry the increased load and thus accidents are frequent.
(iv) Many passengers travel without tickets, causing loss to the railways.
(v) Thefts and damaging of railway property may lead to severe accidents.
Question. Explain four advantages of road transport in India.
Answer : Advantages of roadways are :
(i) Construction cost of roads is economical .
(ii) Roads can be constructed easily in hilly terrains and undulating topography.
(iii) Roadways act as a feeder to other modes of transport, as they provide a link between railway stations, airports and seaports.
Question. Define the following terms:
(ii) International Trade
(iii) Favourable Balance of Trade
(iv) Unfavourable Balance of Trade
Answer : (i) The exchange of goods among people, states and countries is referred to as trade.
(ii) Trade between two countries is called international trade.
(iii) When the value of exports exceeds the value of imports, it is called a favourable balance of trade.
(iv) When the value of imports exceeds the value of exports, it is termed as unfavourable balance of trade.
Question. “Dense and efficient network of transport is a prerequisite for local and national development.” Analyse the statement
Answer : Efficient network of transport is pre-requisite for local and national development-
(i) The movement of the goods and services from their supply locations to demand locations necessitates the need for transportation.
(ii) Development of country depends upon the production of goods and services as well as movement to their destinations.
(iii) Transport helps in both production and distribution of goods.
(iv) Supports all sectors of the economy.
Question. Explain the ways in which tourism promotes the related industries and services of the destination-country.
Answer : Tourism promotes various industries like handicraft industry, sculpture, sea-shell, regional handloom among others. Indian handicraft and handloom in particular hold a special attraction for the Western tourists. Hospitality in the service sectors is benefitted immensely by tourism. Also, transportation services reap the benefits of tourism. Over 2.6 million foreign tourists visit India every year. For example, tourism contributed 14,000 crore rupees to the Indian exchequer in the year 2000 and generated employment for 15 million people directly engaged in the tourism Industry.
Question. Elaborate any three advantages of railways in India.
Answer : Advantages of railways in India are as follows :
(i) It is both convenient and safer to travel long distances by railways.
(ii) They give employment to a large number of people.
(iii) Railways also make it possible to conduct multifarious activities like business, sightseeing, and pilgrimage along with transportation of goods over longer distances.
Question. Explain any four advantages of pipeline transportation.
Answer : The four advantages of pipeline transportation are :
(i) Both solid (when converted into a slurry) liquid and gases can be transported through pipelines.
(ii) Initial cost of laying pipelines is high but subsequent running costs are minimal.
(iii) Trans-shipment losses and delays are minimal.
(iv) It is economical to transport petroleum, natural gas, fertiliser to interior places.
Question. Mention the three important networks of pipeline transportation in the country.
Answer : There are three important networks of pipeline transportation in the country.
(i) From oil field in upper Assam to Kanpur, via Guwahati, Barauni and Allahabad. It has branches from Barauni to Haldia, via Rajbandh, Rajbandh to Maurigram and Guwahati to Siliguri. (ii) From Salaya in Gujarat to Jalandhar in Punjab, via Viramgam, Mathura, Delhi and Sonipat. It has branches to connect Koyali, Ckakshu and other places.
(iii) Gas pipeline from Hazira in Gujarat connects Jagdishpur in Uttar Pradesh, via Vijaipur in Madhya Pradesh. It has branches to Kota in Rajasthan, Shahjahanpur, Babrala and other places in Uttar Pradesh.
Long Answer Type Questions
Question. Describe the significance of pipelines in India.
Answer : The significance of pipelines in India are stated as follows :
(i) They are used for transporting crude oil, petroleum products and natural gas from oil fields and natural gas fields to refineries, fertiliser factories and big thermal power plants.
(ii) Solids can also be transported through a pipeline when converted into slurry.
(iii) Because of pipelines, refineries at Barauni, Mathura, Panipat and gas based fertiliser plants, could be located in the interiors of India.
(iv) Initial cost of laying pipelines is high but subsequent running costs are minimal.
(v) Pipelines rules out transshipment (during transportation) losses or delays.
Question. Explain the importance of Railways as a means of transport.
Answer : Important of railway as a means of transport.
(1) railways are the principal made of transport for passenger and goods and.
(2) they made it possible to conduct multi various activities like a business signet seeing and pilgrimage.
(3) they are best suited for transport of heavy and help me good are large distance.
(4) Indian railway have been an integrating.
(5) the railway system by the economic like of people and accelerate the development of industries and agriculture.
Question. “Pipeline transport network is a new arrival on the transportation map of India.” Explain.
Answer : (i) Previously these were used to transport water to cities and industries.
(ii) Presently these are used to transport crude oil, petroleum products and natural gas.
(iii) Initial cost of laying pipelines is high but running costs are minimal.
(iv) It rules out delays and losses. Some networks are from an oilfield in upper Assam to Kanpur.
Question. What is mass communication? What are the different means of mass communication? What is the significance of mass communication in a country like India?
Answer : (a) Mass communication: Mass communication provides entertainment as well as information to a large number of people at the same time. As they are the means of communication with the masses, they are known as mass communication. Means (like electronic media) which covers a large number of people at the same time.
(b) Different means of communication are radio, television, films and the internet, newspapers and magazines.
(c) Significance of mass communication is presented in the following points:
(i) Covers more than 95% of India’s total population.
(ii) Source of education and entertainment.
(iii) Most instant means of mass information.
(iv) Brings all classes of people together.
Question. Highlight any five features of Hazira–Vijaipur–Jagdishpur gas pipeline.
Answer : (i) This pipeline is about 1700 km long.
(ii) Hazira–Vijaipur–Jagdishpur cross country gas pipeline links Mumbai High and Bassein with the fertiliser, power and industrial complexes in western and northern India.
(iii) This artery has provided an impetus to India‘s gas production.
(iv) The power and fertilizer industries are the key users of natural gas.
(v) Use of Compressed Natural Gas (CNG) for vehicles to replace liquid fuels is gaining wide popularity in the country.
Question. What is the significance of ‘Border Roads’?Explain.
Answer : (i) Border Roads Organization was established in 1960.
(ii) This organization develops the roads of strategic importance in the northern and the north-eastern border areas.
(iii) These roads have improved accessibility in areas of difficult terrain.
(iv) These roads have enabled the economy to develop in the border areas.
Question. Name the longest National Waterway of India. Write any three points of importance of waterways.
Answer : The longest National Waterway of India is the Ganga river between Allahabad and Haldia.
Importance of waterways :
(i) It is most suitable for carrying heavy and bulky goods.
(ii) It is a fuel efficient and environment friendly.
(iii) More than 95% of the country’s trade volume is moved by the sea.
(iv) It is the cheapest means of transport.
(v) They are the natural routes which do not involve cost of construction.
Question. ‘‘Indian Railways binds the economic life of the country as well as accelerates the development of industry and agriculture.’’ Justify the statement.
Answer : Railways are the most important mode of transport in India due to the following reasons:
(i) Railways are the principal mode of transportation for freight and passengers in India, as they link different parts of the country.
(ii) They carry huge loads and bulky goods for long distances.
(iii) Railways make it possible to conduct multifarious activities like business, sightseeing, and pilgrimage along with goods transportation over longer distances.
(iv) Railways have been a great integrating force for the nation, for more than 150 years now.
(v) They have been helpful in binding the economic life of the country and cultural fusion.
(vi) They have accelerated the development of the industry and agriculture.
Question. Explain any five characteristics of Kandla port.
Answer : Characteristics of Kandla port :
(i) First port developed soon after India got Independence.
(ii) Reduced the volume of traffic on Mumbai port.
(iii) Tidal port.
(iv) Caters exports and imports of highly productive granary and industrialised states.
(v) Free trade zone.
Question. Explain with examples the changing nature of international trade of India in the last fifteen years.
Write a note on the changing nature of international trade in India in the last fifteen years.
Answer : There has been a change in the nature of our international trade:
(i) Since, the share of agriculture and allied products, ores and minerals, chemical engineering goods has been increasing.
(ii) Exchange of commodities and goods have been superseded by the exchange of information and knowledge.
(iii) India has emerged as a software giant at the international level.
(iv) India is earning large foreign exchange through the export of information technology.
(v) Imports: The commodities imported to India include petroleum and petroleum products 41.87% and coal, coke – 94.17%
Question. What is trade? Explain t he importance of international trade?
Answer : Trade : The exchange of goods among people, states and countries is referred to as trade.
(i) International trade of a country is an index to its economic prosperity.
(ii) It is considered the economic barometer for a country.
(iii) As the resources are space-bound, no country can survive without international trade.
(iv) Countries have trade relations with the major trading block.
(v) Exchange of commodities and goods have been superseded by the exchange of information and knowledge.
Question. Why is air travel more popular in the north–eastern states of India? Explain.
Answer : Air Transport is considered as an important means of transport in the north-eastern part of our country because :
(i) Big rivers: Presence of big rivers like Brahmaputra make it difficult to construct roads and railways. Airways are suitable when rivers get flooded.
(ii) Dissected relief: Uneven surface-not suitable for the construction of roadways and railways. This can be easily travelled by airways.
(iii) Dense forests: Dense forests hamper the construction of roadways and railways.
(iv) International frontiers: International borders of Bangladesh, Myanmar, China, etc., can be easily travelled by airways without much hassles.
Question. Elaborate any two important networks of pipeline transportation in India along with their ranches.
Answer : (i) Commodities transported by pipelines: Crude oil, petroleum products, natural gas and even solids in the form of a slurry.
(ii) Network :
(a) From upper Assam to Kanpur (Uttar Pradesh), via Guwahati, Barauni and Allahabad. It has branches from Barauni to Haldia via Rajbandh, Rajbandh to Mourigram and Guwahati to Siliguri.
(b) From Salaya in Gujarat to Jalandhar in Punjab via Viramgam, Mathura, Delhi and Sonipat. It has branches to connect Koyali (near Vadodara, Gujarat) Chakshu and other places.
(c) From Hazira in Gujarat to Jagdishpur in Uttar Pradesh gas pipeline via Vijaypur in Madhya Pradesh. It has branches to Kota in Rajasthan, Shahjahanpur, Babrala and other places in Uttar Pradesh.
Question. “Road transport and Rail transport in India are not competitive but complementary to each other.” Justify the statement.
Answer : The statement ‘Road Transport’ and ‘Rail Transport’ in India are not competitive, but complementary to each other is justified in the following ways :
(i) Road transport is more suitable for short distances whereas rail transport is more suitable for long distances.
(ii) Road transport is economical in the transportation of a few persons and a relatively smaller amount of goods over a short distances, whereas rail transport is more suitable for large number of people and heavy goods.
(iii) It is beneficial for perishable goods to be carried by roads in short period of time, whereas nonperishable and bulky are transported by railways for a longer distance.
(iv) Road transport increases the efficiency of railways.
(vi) The deficiency of railways is compensated by road transport.
Question. “Efficient means of transport and communication has converted the world into a large village”. Explain this statement with the help of examples.
Answer : Efficient means of transport and communication has coverted the world into a larger village which can be understood through following points.
(i) Through transport and communication, we are well-linked with the rest of the world.
(ii) India is united despite its vast size, diversity and linguistic, and socio-cultural plurality.
(iii) Railways, airways, waterways, newspapers, radio, television, cinema and internet, etc., lead to India’s socio-economic progress in many ways.
(iv) The trades from local to international levels have added to the strength of our economy.
(v) It has enriched our life and molded the socioeconomic life of the nation.