Mineral and Energy Resources Class 12 Geography Exam Questions

Exam Questions Class 12

Please refer to Mineral and Energy Resources Class 12 Geography Exam Questions provided below. These questions and answers for Class 12 Geography have been designed based on the past trend of questions and important topics in your class 12 Geography books. You should go through all Class 12 Geography Important Questions provided by our teachers which will help you to get more marks in upcoming exams.

Class 12 Geography Exam Questions Mineral and Energy Resources

Class 12 Geography students should read and understand the important questions and answers provided below for Mineral and Energy Resources which will help them to understand all important and difficult topics.

Short Answer Type Questions

Question. Explain any three main characteristics of mineral resources. 
Ans The major characteristics of mineral resources are
(i) Their distribution over the earth’s surface is uneven i.e. some regions have rich minerals, whereas others lack behind in availability of minerals.
(ii) Minerals of good quality are less in amount and minerals of low quality are more in amount on earth.
Thus, quality and quantity of minerals have an inverse relationship.
(iii) Minerals are exhaustible, i.e. once used they can’t be used again. Minerals take long time to develop geologically and once they get exhausted, they cannot be replenished immediately at the time of need.

Question. ‘‘The promotion of the use of non-conventional sources of energy in India is the need of the hour.’’Support the statement.
Answer. It is true that promotion of the use of non-conventional sources of energy in India is the need of the hour due to the following reasons
– Unlike conventional sources of energy, most of the non-conventional energy sources are cheaper and renewable. The limitation and scarcity of fossil fuels have given rise to the urgent need for using the alternative energy sources such as renewable non-conventional energy resources.
– Power from non-conventional and renewable sources is must in order to reduce Carbon Dioxide (CO2) emissions from the coal-based power plants.Non-conventional resources are environment friendly.
l Locally available non-conventional and renewable power resources like wind and solar can meet local rural energy needs with minimum costs.
Thus, non-conventional energy resources will ensure sustainable development by meeting the needs of the present generation without harming the needs of future generation.

Question. ‘India has largest iron ore reserves in Asia’.Describe the distribution of iron ore in India.
Answer. The distribution of iron ore in India is
– Iron ore mines of India are found near the coal fields of North-Eastern plateau region which is an advantage for iron and steel industries of India.
– Only a few Indian states have about 95% of total iron ore reserves in India. These states are Odisha, Jharkhand, Karnataka,Maharashtra and Andhra Pradesh.
– Important iron ore producing regions are Sundergarh, Mayurbhanj, Jhar in Odisha, Noamundi and Gua in Poorbi and Paschimi Singbhum in Jharkhand, Sandur-Hospet region in Karnataka and Kurnool, Anantpur district in Andhra Pradesh.

Question. Give two advantages of ‘wind energy.’ Mention four states of India having favourable conditions for the development of wind energy.
Answer. Wind energy is a non-conventional source of energy. The advantages of wind energy are
(i) Wind energy is a clean fuel source. It does not pollute the air as compared to conventional sources like coal.
(ii) Wind energy is one of the low-cost renewable energy technologies available today. Even without government subsidies, wind energy is a low-cost fuel in many areas of the country.
Four wind power producing states of India are Rajasthan, Gujarat, Maharashtra and Karnataka.

Question.Give an account of the distribution of mica in India.
Answer. In India, mica is mainly found in Jharkhand, Andhra
Pradesh, Rajasthan, Karnataka. The distribution of mica in India is
– In Jharkhand, Hazaribagh plateau produces high quality of mica.
– In Andhra Pradesh, Nellore district is famous for mica production.
– A 320 km long belt from Jaipur to Bhilwara and around Udaipur produces mica in Rajasthan.
– Mysore and Hasan are important mica producers in Karnataka.

Question. Write an essay on hydel power in India. 
Answer. Hydel power is one of the important renewable sources of energy. Here electricity is generated by using potential energy of water. It is more sustained, eco-friendly and cheaper energy after initial cost is taken care of. India has one of the world’s largest potential for hydroelectric power. Its potential is around 84,000 MW.
The Brahmaputra basin has the largest possible capacity of hydro power in India followed by Indus and Ganges basin. First hydroelectric power plants were set up in
Darjeeling (West Bengal) and Shivasamudram (Karnataka) in 1897 and 1902, respectively. States like Karnataka, Himachal Pradesh, Punjab, Uttarakhand, Tamil Nadu, Uttar Pradesh, Odisha, etc are the major producers of hydropower generation in India.
The National Hydroelectric Power Corporation (NHPC) is responsible for planning and promoting efficient development of hydroelectric power in the country.

Question. ‘‘Conservation of minerals is more important than other resources’’. Explain by giving three arguments.
Answer. Conservation of minerals is more important than other resources due to the following reasons
(i) Minerals are important as large number industries are dependent for raw materials completely on minerals. We are rapidly consuming mineral resources which require millions of years to form.
(ii) Minerals are in insufficient quantities and are exhaustible.
(iii) Mineral conservation is necessary because once they get exhausted, it will be difficult to find other resources to take their place. Economic and industrial development of a country depends on minerals.

Question. Describe the uneven distribution of mineral and energy resources in India by giving suitable examples. 
Answer. India is a rich country in terms of minerals. However, there is uneven distribution of mineral and energy resources in country.
For example,
– Most of the metallic minerals occur in the Peninsular Plateau region in the old crystalline rocks.
– River valleys of Damodar, Sone, Mahanadi and Godavari have over 97% of coal reserves in India.
– Sedimentary basins of Assam and offshore region in  the Arabian Sea (Gujarat and Mumbai High) are famous for their crude petroleum reserves.
– The area to the East of a line joining Mangaluru and Kanpur has most of the major mineral resources of India.
– Mineral are mainly concentrated in three broad belts, namely, the North-Eastern Plateau region, the South-Western Plateau region and the North-Western Plateau region.

Long Answer Type Questions

Question. ‘‘The non-conventional sources of energy in India will provide more sustained and environment friendly energy.’’ Examine the statement.
Or ‘‘The non-conventional sources of energy will provide more sustained, eco-friendly and cheaper energy if the initial cost is taken care of.’’ Examine the statement. 
Answer. Non-conventional energy resources involve higher costs in setting up of large plants and equipments. If this cost is taken care of by providing subsidies, discounts and monetary support, the non-conventional energy resources will provide more sustained and environment friendly energy in the following ways
– Non-conventional energy sources are cheaper and renewable. The overall limitation and scarcity of conventional sources has given rise to the urgent need for exploiting alternative energy sources.
– Non-conventional sources are inexhaustible in nature and environment friendly. In comparison, conventional sources like thermal power plants create air and water pollution.
– Non-conventional energy can be made locally also even in small amounts depending upon local needs and availability of resources. This reduces transportation cost.
– Non-conventional energy sources are solar energy wind energy, geothermal energy, biomass energy etc. These are easily available in the country and can be harnessed with
the help of modern technology. These sources are capable of regeneration. These can be renewed along with exploitation and hence, always available for us.

Question. Classify minerals into two groups on the basis of chemical and physical properties and give one example of minerals of each group. Mention any two features of the three mineral belts of India.
Answer. Minerals are classified on the basis of their physical properties and chemical properties such as
(i) Metallic Minerals Metallic minerals are those that are rich in metals. They are used to obtain a variety of metals like copper, gold, iron, etc. Bauxite, iron ore are some examples of metallic minerals. There are two types of metallic minerals i.e. ferrous and non-ferrous. Ferrous minerals include iron,manganese etc. Non-ferrous minerals include copper, bauxite etc.
(ii) Non-metallic Minerals Non-metallic minerals are those that do not have metal components. Nonmetallic minerals are mica, limestone, graphite etc.
Features of the three mineral belts are
(i) North-Eastern Plateau Region
– It covers Chhotanagpur in Jharkhand, Odisha Plateau, West Bengal and parts of Chhattisgarh.
– It contains minerals such as Iron-ore, coal, manganese, bauxite and mica.
(ii) South-Western Plateau Region
– It extends over Karnataka, Goa, Tamil Nadu uplands and Kerala.
– It is rich in ferrous minerals and iron-ore, manganese and limestone. It also contains Neyveli lignite coal.
(iii) North-Western Region
– It extends along Aravalli in Rajasthan and parts of Gujarat.
– Minerals are associated with Dharwar system of rocks. Minerals found here include copper, zinc, sandstone, granite and marble.

Question. Nuclear energy is replacing the conventional sources in India. Do you think it as a viable source of energy in future keeping in view the availability of nuclear minerals in India.
Answer. Nuclear energy is replacing the conventional sources of energy in India. Nuclear power plants are being constructed to replace thermal power plant in a phase wise manner. Nuclear energy has multiple benefit over other conventional sources. Country like India, which are deficient in energy resources are promoting nuclear energy to fulfil its demand.
Yes, nuclear energy is a viable source of energy for future keeping in view the availability of nuclear minerals in India due to following reasons
– In nuclear power plant, uranium and thorium are used to generate energy. In India, uranium deposits found in the Dharwar rock system. Its main reserves are in Singhbum (Jharkhand), Udaipur, Alwar and Jhunjhunu (Rajasthan), etc.
– India has very rich deposits of the thorium in the world, which is the biggest reason for the viability of nuclear energy in India. Thorium is mainly obtained from monazite and ilmenite in the beach sands of India.
– The states which have rich monazite deposits are Kerala, Andhra Pradesh and Odisha.
Institutions such as Atomic Energy Commission and Bhabha Atomic Research Centre are working consistently to extract thorium from monazite in efficient manner, so that India’s dependence on convectional sources can be reduced.

Question. ‘‘Conservation of mineral resources is essential for the development of India.’’ Examine the statement.
Answer. Conservation of minerals resources is essential for development of India because of the following reasons
– In India, mineral resources are unevenly distributed throughout the country, if these resources get extinct, then it will a huge challenge to fulfil domestic requirement.
– Its conservation is important as large number of industries are dependent completely on mineral resources.
– If mineral resources are not conserved, then we have to import them from other countries which will put huge economical pressure.
– The formation of minerals takes number of years.Moreover, they finite and non-renewable. Once finished, they take millions of years for their replenishment.
– Every country has a moral responsibility to conserve resources for the future generation, so that, they can also use them for their development.
Hence, efficient and judicious of minerals is demand of time, if we want to ensure development of India.

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Mineral and Energy Resources Class 12 Geography Exam Questions