Please refer to Nationalism in India Class 10 Social Science Exam Questions provided below. These questions and answers for Class 10 Social Science have been designed based on the past trend of questions and important topics in your class 10 Social Science books. You should go through all Class 10 Social Science Important Questions provided by our teachers which will help you to get more marks in upcoming exams.
Class 10 Social Science Exam Questions Nationalism in India
Class 10 Social Science students should read and understand the important questions and answers provided below for Nationalism in India which will help them to understand all important and difficult topics.
Very Short Answer Type Questions
Question. Who among the following were the prominent leaders during the Khilafat Movement? Identify the correct option.
(a) Maulana Mohammad Ali and Shaukat Ali
(b) Mohammad Ali Jinnah and Mahatma Gandhi
(c) Maulana Abdul Kalam Azad and Shaukat Ali
(d) Mohammad Ali Jinnah and Shaukat Ali
Answer : (a) Maulana Mohammad Ali and Shaukat Ali
Question. Find the incorrect statement.
(a) In Awadh, the Peasant Movement was developed under Pt Jawaharlal Nehru.
(b) Khilafat Movement was started in 1921.
(c) Ambedkar organised the Dalit into the Depressed Classes Association in 1930.
(d) In 1921, Gandhiji had designed a tricolour Swaraj Flag.
Answer : (a) In Awadh, the Peasant Movement was developed under Pt Jawaharlal Nehru.
Question. Choose the correctly matched pair about the incidents with their year of occurrence from the given options.
(a) Indian Industrial and Commerce Congress was formed-1927
(b) Federation of the Indian Chamber of Commerce and Industries- 1920
(c) Poona Pact- 1932
(d) Mohammad Iqbal demanded Separate Electorates for Muslims- 1928
Answer : (c) Poona Pact- 1932
Question. Who was responsible for the infamous Jallianwalla Bagh incidence on 13th April, 1919 at Amritsar?
(a) Warren Hastings
(b) General Dyer
(c) Lord Cornwallis
(d) William Bentick
Answer : (b) General Dyer
Question. Identify the personality with the help of clues given below
◆ He was a Sanyasi.
◆ Peasant Movement of Awadh developed under his leadership.
◆ He had earlier been a Fiji as an indentured labourer.
(a) Baba Ramachandra
(b) Mahatma Gandhi
(c) Rabindranath Tagore
(d) Abanindranath Tagore
Answer : (a) Baba Ramachandra
Question. Choose the incorrectly matched pair from the given options.
(a) Salt March was initiated from- Nagpur
(b) Abdul Gaffar Khan was arrested- April 1930
(c) Mahatma Gandhi called off Civil Disobedience Movement- March 1931
(d) Civil Disobedience lost its momentum- 1934
Answer : (a) Salt March was initiated from- Nagpur
Question. Following image shows a place Chauri-Chaura in Gorakhpur where a peaceful demonstration in a bazaar turned into a violent clash with the police.
After hearing this incident Mahatma Gandhi called off which of the following movement?
(a) Tribal Movement
(b) Non-Cooperation Movement
(c) Civil Disobedience Movement
(d) Poorna Swaraj Movement
Answer : (b) Non-Cooperation Movement
Question. Identify the movement with the given features and choose the correct option.
◆ It was started in 1930.
◆ The movement took place in Gujarat.
◆ This movement was started by Gandhiji.
(a) Non-Cooperation Movement
(b) Civil Disobedience Movement
(c) Peasant Movement
(d) Khilafat Movement
Answer : (b) Civil Disobedience Movement
Question. Consider the following statements and choose the correct option.
I. A khilafat committee was formed in Bombay in March 1919.
II. Jallianwala Bagh massacre took place on 13th April, 1920.
III. Simon commission was constituted by Mahatma Gandhi.
(a) Only I
(b) Both I and II
(c) Only III
(d) All of these
Answer : (a) Only I
Question. Match the following items given in Column A with those in Column B.
Choose the correct answer from the options given below.
(a) A – 3, B – 4, C – 2, D – 1
(b) A – 2, B – 3, C – 4, D – 1
(c) A – 4, B – 3, C – 2, D – 1
(d) A – 1, B – 2, C – 4, D – 3
Answer : (c) A – 4, B – 3, C – 2, D – 1
Question. Assertion (A) Some leaders within the Congress were tired of the Mass struggle and wanted to participate in the election to the Provincial Councils set up by the Government of India Act of 1919.
Reason (R) They felt that elections are necessary to establish democracy in India.
(a) Both A and R are true and R is the correct explanation of A
(b) Both A and R are true, but R is not the correct explanation of A
(c) A is true, but R is false
(d) A is false, but R is true
Answer : (c) A is true, but statement R is false.
Question. Assertion (A) The Non-Cooperation Movement gradually slowed down for a variety of reasons in the cities.
Reason (R) As the boycott movement spread and people began discarding imported clothes and wearing only Indian ones, production of Indian Textile Mills and handlooms went up.
(a) Both A and R are true and R is the correct explanation of A
(b) Both A and R are true, but R is not the correct explanation of A
(c) A is true, but R is false
(d) A is false, but R is true
Answer : (b) Both A and R are true, but R is not the correct explanation of A
Question. Why was martial law imposed in Amritsar ?
Answer : Local leaders were picked up from Amritsar, and Gandhiji was not allowed to enter Delhi. On 10th April,the police in Amritsar fired upon a peaceful procession that culminated widespread attacks on banks, post offices and railway stations, so martial law was imposed.
Question. What were the demands of peasants in Awadh ?
Answer : The peasants of Awadh demanded lessening of revenues, elimination of begar, and social boycott of oppressive landlords.
Question. What did the British government do to repress the Rowlatt Satyagrahis ?
Answer : Satyagrahis were compelled to rub their noses on the ground, squat on the streets and do salaam to all Britishers.
Question. By what name were the Dalits referred by Gandhiji?
Answer : Gandhiji called the Dalits as Harijans i.e Children of God.
Question. Name the place where Non-Cooperation movement was called off?
Answer : Chauri Chaura
Question. Why had Congress ignored the dalits for long?
Answer : Congress ignored the Dalits for long because of the fear of offending the Sanatanis.
Question. Who was known as ‘Lion of Punjab’?
Answer : Lala Lajpat Rai was known as Lion of Punjab.
Question. Which pact reserved seats for Dalits in the provincial and central legislative assembly?
Answer : Poona Pact
Question. What was the reason for calling off the Non-Cooperation Movement?
Answer : In 1922, Chauri Chaura’s violent incident led Gandhi to call off the Non-Cooperation Movement.
Question. In which movement did the women participate in large number for the first time?
Answer : For the first time, women participated in large number in the Civil Disobedience Movement.
Question. How Simon Commission was greeted in India ?
Answer : When Simon Commission entered India in 1928, it was welcomed with the roaring slogan with a black flag, ‘Go back, Simon’.
Question. Why did Mahatma Gandhi want to join Khilafat issue ?
Answer : In order to spawn communal harmony, Mahatma Gandhi aimed to join Khilafat issue.
Short Answer Type Questions
Question. Why did the different social groups join the Civil Disobedience Movement ? Explain.
Answer : On the call of Gandhiji, different social groups joined the Civil Disobedience Movement . However, they had different reasons which are as follows:
(i) Rich peasant communities : The Patidars of Gujarat, the Jats of Uttar Pradesh and other rich peasants were the producers of commercial crops, they were very hard hit by the trade depression and falling prices. As their cash income disappeared, they found it impossible to pay the government’s revenue demand. And the refusal of the government to reduce the revenue demand led to widespread resentment. They supported the movement enthusiastically and saw the fight for swaraj as a struggle against high revenues.
(ii) Poor peasants : As the depression continued and cash incomes dwindled, the small tenants found it difficult to pay their rent. They wanted the unpaid rent to the landlord to be remitted. They joined a variety of radical movements, often led by Socialists and Communists.
(iii) The business classes : During the First World War, Indian merchants and industrialists had made huge profits and become powerful. Keen on expanding their business, they now reacted against colonial policies that restricted business activities. They wanted protection against imports of foreign goods, and a rupee-sterling foreign exchange ratio that would discourage imports. They supported the movement by giving financial assistance and refused to buy or sell imported goods. Most businessmen came to see swaraj as a time when colonial restrictions on business would no longer exist and trade and industry would flourish without constraints.
(iv) Industrial workers : As the industrialists came closer to the Congress, workers stayed aloof. But in spite of that, some workers did participate in the Civil Disobedience Movement, selectively adopting some of the ideas of the Gandhian programme, like boycott of foreign goods, as part of their own movements against low wages and poor working conditions. There were strikes by railway workers in 1930 and dockworkers in 1932.
(v) Women : Moved by Gandhiji’s call, they began to see service to the nation as a sacred duty of women.
Question. Mention three reasons by which the rich peasant communities took active participation in the Civil Disobedience Movement.
Answer : Three reasons by which the affluent peasant communities took part in the Civil Disobedience Movement are enumerated as follows :
(i) Being producers of cash crops, they were dismayed by the global economic depression and subsequent falling prices of 1930s.
(ii) As their cash income abated, they found it difficult to meet the revenue demand of government.
(iii) There was a popular resentment among the rich peasants and they enthusiastically bolstered the movement.
Question. Why did Gandhiji launch the Civil Disobedience Movement? Give reasons.
Answer : Gandhiji launched the Civil Disobedience Movement because
◆ Mahatma Gandhi sent a letter (31st January, 1930) to Viceroy Irwin stating eleven demands. Some of these were of general interest, others were specific demands of different classes. However, Viceroy Irwin refused the demands. Thus, he decided to launch the movement.
◆ Another reason for launching the movement was the Salt Law. Gandhiji believed that the tax on salt and the Government monopoly over salt production was the most oppressive measure taken by the British Government. This law had to be removed. Thus, he broke the salt law by manufacturing salt by boiling water in Dandi and urged the people to refuse cooperation with the British. The Salt March marked the beginnning of the Civil Disobedience Movement.
Question. What was the Rowlatt Act? How did it affect the National Movement?
What was Rowlatt Act? How did the Indians show their disapproval towards this Act?)
Answer : Rowlatt Act was an oppressive act introduced by the British Government in 1919. It gave the Government enormous powers to repress political activities and allowed detention of political person without trial for two years.
The Rowlatt Act affected the National Movement and Indian show their disapproval towards this act in the following ways
◆ Rallies were organised in various cities, workers went on strike in railway workshops and shops were closed down.
◆ British administration suppressed the nationalists. As a result local leaders were picked up from Amritsar and Mahatma Gandhi was barred from entering Delhi.
Question. Explain four points about Gandhiji’s Satyagraha.
Gandhiji’s idea of Satyagraha emphasised the power of truth and the need to search for truth. In the Light of this statement assess the contribution of Gandhiji towards Satyagraha.
Answer : Gandhiji’s contribution towards Satyagraha and his idea of Satyagraha was
◆ It emphasised the power of truth and the need to search for truth.
◆ It suggested that if the cause was true and if the struggle was against injustice, then physical force was not necessary to fight the oppressor. Without being aggressive, the Satyagrahi could win the battle.
◆ By Satyagraha, one can win the oppressor even by appealing to the conscience. Oppressor should be made to see the truth.
◆ By Satyagraha, truth was bound to triumph (victory) ultimately. Gandhiji believed that this dharma of non-violence could unite all Indians.
Question. Why was Non-Cooperation Movement started in 1920? Why did Gandhiji call off the movement in 1922?
Why Gandhiji decided to withdraw the Non-Cooperation Movement?
Answer : Non-Cooperation Movement was started by Gandhiji in 1920 because
◆ Gandhiji saw this movement as opportunity to unite Muslims and Hindus.
◆ He wanted a solution on Khilafat issue.
◆ The most important objective was the attainment of Swaraj.
Gandhiji called off Non-Cooperation Movement in 1922 because
◆ The movement became violent. At Chauri-Chaura (Gorakhpur) a peaceful demonstration in a bazar turned into a violent clash in which more than 20 policemen were killed.
◆ Gandhiji felt that the Satyagrahis needed to be properly trained before they would be ready for mass struggle.
Question. What was the main objective of Simon Commission? Why was the commission rejected by the Indians? Discuss.
Answer : The main objective of Simon Commission, constituted under John Simon, was to review the functioning of the constitutional system in India and suggest changes in the system.
The Commission was boycotted by the Indian leaders because
◆ There was no Indian member in this Commission.
◆ The terms of Commission’s appointement did not give any indication of swaraj while the demand of Indians was only swaraj.
Thus, when the Simon Commission arrived in India in 1928, it was greeted with the slogan ‘Go Back Simon’.
Question. How did plantation workers in Assam had their own understanding of Mahatma Gandhi and the notion of Swaraj? Explain.
Answer : The plantation workers in Assam had understood the notion of Swaraj in the following ways
◆ For plantation workers in Assam, freedom meant the right to move freely in and out of the confined space in which they were enclosed. Under the Inland Emigration Act of 1859 plantation workers were not permitted to leave the Tea Gardens without permission.
◆ Swaraj for plantation workers meant retaining a link the village from which they had come. When plantation workers heard of the Non-Cooperation Movement thousands of workers refused to obey their authorities, left the plantations and headed home.
◆ They believed that Gandhi Raj was coming and everyone would be given land in their own village. The plantation worker, however never reached their destination as they were caught by the police and brutally beaten up.
Question. Explain the reason for the Lahore Session of the Congress in 1929 to be called the historical session.
Mention the main contents of Indian National Congress in December 1929 held under the leadership of Jawaharlal Nehru.
Answer : Lahore Session of the Congress in 1929 is called the historical session as at this session, the Congress President Jawaharlal Nehru passed a resolution of declaring ‘Purna Swaraj’ in December 1929. In 1929, Viceroy Lord Irwin announced an uncertain offer of ‘Dominian status’ to India and a Round Table Conference to discuss a future Constitution. The expectations of the Congress were not met by this announcement. At that time liberals and moderates in Congress lost their influence and Radicals like Jawaharlal Nehru and Subhash Chandra Bose became more assertive in Congress.
After declaring ‘Purna Swaraj’ or complete independence, the Congress declared 26th January, 1930 as the Independence Day.
Question. Why did Mahatma Gandhi find in ‘salt’ a powerful symbol that could unite the nation? Explain.
Answer : Mahatma Gandhi found in salt a powerful symbol that could unite the nation because salt is consumed by everyone and is regarded as one of the most essential items of food. By levying tax on salt and establishing monopoly over its production, the communal power revealed the most oppressive face of them.
Gandhiji thought if any movement could be arranged against this oppression (monopoly over the production of salt) which affected people from all strata, it could unite the nation. He believed ‘salt’ had this power. So, he gave an ultimatum to the British Government, but Irwin was not ready to negotiate.
Gandhiji started his famous Salt March with his trusted 78 followers from the Sabarmati ashram towards Dandi, the coastal town of Gujarat. This marked the beginning of the Civil Disobedience Movement all over India. In this way, ‘salt’ inspired the nation to rebel against the British.
Question. Describe the cultural process through which nationalism captured people’s imagination.
Answer : There were variety of cultural processes through which nationalism captured people’s imagination. These were history, fiction, folklore, songs, popular prints and symbols which played a part in the making of nationalism. The image of Bharat Mata helped to create an image in which people can identify the nation.
Devotion to this mother figure came to be seen as evidence of one’s nationalism. These cultural processes help in spread of nationalism as people began to believe that they all are part of the same nation and discover a sense of collective belongingness.
Question. How had the First World War created a new economic situation in India?
Answer : The First World War created a new economic situation in India which are as follows:
i. It speeded up the process of industrialization.
ii. Prices of essential commodities doubled between 1913 and 1918 leading to extreme hardship to the common people.
iii. It led to a huge increase in defence expenditure which was financed by war loans and increasing taxes.
iv. It created a demand for industrial goods (jute bags, doth, rails, etc.) and caused a decline in imports from other countries into India.
Question. Explain in brief the ‘Dandi March’.
Answer : i. Mahatma Gandhi started his famous ‘Salt March’ or ‘Dandi March’ on 11th March 1930 accompanied by 78 of his trusted volunteers.
ii. The distance from Sabarmati Ashram to Dandi, a coastal town on the coast of Gujarat was 240 miles. The volunteers walked for 24 days, 10 miles a day.
iii. Thousands of people came to hear Gandhiji. The explained the meaning of Swaraj to them.
iv. On 6th April 1930, he reached Dandi and ceremonially violated the law and manufactured salt by boiling sea water.
v. This marked the beginning of Civil Disobedience Movement.
Question. i. Two features A and B are marked in the given political map of India. Identify these features with the help of the following information and write their correct names on the lines marked on the map.
a. A place where the session of Congress held in 1929
b. A place associated with the movement of Indigo Planters
ii. Locate and Label Ahmadabad-cotton mill workers Satyagraha with appropriate symbols on the same map given for identification
Question. Identify the reasons that why Muslim Political organizations in India were lukewarm in their response to the civil disobedience Movement.
Answer : a. Some of the Muslim political organizations in India were also lukewarm in their response to the Civil Disobedience Movement.
b. After the decline of the Non- Cooperation–Khilafat movement, a large section of Muslims felt alienated from the congress.
c. From the mid-1920s the congress came to be more visibly associated with openly Hindu religious nationalist group like the Hindu Mahasabha.
d. As relation between Hindus and Muslims worsened, each community organized religious processions with militant fervor, provoking Hindu-Muslim communal clashes and riots in various cities.
e. Every riot deepened the distance between the two communities.
f. From the mid-1920’s the Congress stared being more associated and supportive towards Hindu religious groups like Hindu mahasabha.So, many Muslim leaders stared to express their concern about the status of Muslims as a minority within
g. Hindu Muslim clashes led to communal riots worsening the relation between the two communities. The Muslims feared that the culture and identity of minorities would be submerged under the domination of a Hindu majority.
Question. Explain the contribution of Gandhiji to uplift the position of Untouchables in the society?
A. Gandhiji declared that Swaraj would not come for a hundred years if untouchability was not eliminated.
B. He called the untouchables Harijans children of God,
C. He organized satyagraha to secure them entry into temples and to assess to public wells, tanks, roads and schools,
D. He himself cleaned toilets to dignify the work of Bhangi (the Sweepers).
E. He persuaded the upper castes to change their heart and give up the sin of untouchability.
Question. Highlight the major facts about the new economic situation created by First Word War in India?
Answer : A. First World War led to a huge increase in defense expenditure which was financed war loans and increase in Taxes.
B. Custom duties were raised and new income taxes were introduced.
C. Through war years prices increased-doubling between 1913 and 1918.
D. Villagers were called upon to supply soldiers.
E. Forced recruitment in rural areas caused widespread anger
Question. i. Two features A and B are marked in the given political map of India. Identify these features with the help of the following information and write their correct names on the lines marked on the map.
a. The Satyagraha of the peasants
b. Place where Gandhiji violated the Salt Law
ii. Locate and Label Nagpur session 1920 with appropriate symbols on the same map given for identification
Question. How could Non-Cooperation become a movement? Give your opinion.
Answer : Non-cooperation became a movement in the following ways:
a. The idea of non-cooperation was first introduced by Gandhiji in his book Hind Swaraj, where he declared that since the British had established their rule in India with the cooperation of the Indians, it would collapse only when the cooperation
b. Gandhiji proposed that the movement should unfold in stages.
c. In case the government used repressive methods, a full-scale Civil Disobedience campaign would then be launched.
d. Mahatma Gandhi and Shaukat Ali toured extensively, mobilising popular support of the movement.
Question. What were the methods used by peasants of Awadh to achieve their goal? Explain.
Answer : In Awadh, Jawaharlal Nehru and Baba Ramchandra started the Oudh Kisan Sabha to overcome the problems of the peasants. The aim was to integrate the peasant movement with the Non-Cooperation Movement. But the Awadh peasants used methods that went against the ideals of the congress.
A. In many places nai-dhobi bandhs were organized by panchayats to deprive landlords of the service of even barbers and washermen.
B. The peasant movement demanded reduction of revenue, abolition of beggar and social boycott of oppressive landlords.
C. Some peasants denied doing beggar-work without at landlords’ farms without any payment.
D. As the movement spread in 1921, the houses of talukdars and merchants were attacked, bazaars were looted.
Question. Why the need to create the image of Bharat Mata?
Answer : ➢ The identity of the nation, is most often symbolised in a figure or image.
➢ This helps create an image with which people can identify the nation.
➢ It was in the twentieth century, with the growth of nationalism, that the identity of India came to be visually associated with the image of Bharat Mata.
Question. When did theIndian Nationalists began recording folk tales and why?
Answer : ➢ Began in late C19th by nationalists, because they
• Believed it gave a true picture of traditional culture that had been corrupted/damaged by outside forces.
• Essential to preserve folk tradition in order to discover – national identity, restore a sense of pride in one’s past.
➢ Bengal – it was Rabindranath Tagore who himself began collecting ballads, nursery rhymes and myths and led the movement – folk revival.
➢ Madras – Ntesa Sastri published a 4 volume collection of Tamil Folk tales, ‘The folklore of southern India’
➢ He believed – folklore was national literature and it was ‘the most trustworthy manifestation of people’s read thoughts and characteristics.
Question. What were the three early movement of Gandhiji?
Answer : i. Champaran in Bihar (1915) struggle against – plantation system
ii. Kheda in Gujarat (1917) for peasants against revenue collection
iii. Ahmedabad (1918) cotton mill workers strike.
Question. Describe the Jallianwala Bagh incidence.
Answer : i. On 13 April the infamous Jallianwalla Bagh incident took place.
ii. On that day a large crowd gathered in the enclosed ground of Jallianwalla Bagh. Some came to protest against the government’s new repressive measures. Others had come to attend the annual Baisakhi fair. Being from outside the city, many villagers were unaware of the martial law that had been imposed.
iii. Dyer entered the area, blocked the exit points, and opened fire on the crowd, killing hundreds.
Question. Why did Gandhiji start the non-cooperation movement?
Answer : In his famous book Hind Swaraj (1909) Mahatma Gandhi declared that British rule was established in India with the cooperation of Indians, and had survived only because of this cooperation. If Indians refused to cooperate, British rule in India would collapse within a year, and swaraj would come.
Question. Why were the leaders within the congress concerned about Gandhiji’s proposals?
Answer : i. Many within the Congress were, however, concerned about the proposals.
ii. They were reluctant to boycott the council elections scheduled for November 1920, and
iii. they feared that the movement might lead to popular violence.
Question. What was the economic and political situation of India when Gandhiji appeared?
Answer : i. Due to 1st world war – huge increase in defense expenditure which was financed by increasing taxes (custom duties, income tax)
ii. Prices increased – extreme hardship – common people.
iii. Forced recruitment in rural areas – widespread anger
iv. Crops failed resulting in acute food shortages
v. There was influenza epidemic – people perished.
Question. What was the new mode of struggle suggested by Gandhiji?
Answer : i. The idea of satyagraha emphasized the power of truth.
ii. If the cause was true, then physical force was not necessary to fight the oppressor.
iii. Satyagrahi could win the battle by appealing to the conscience of the oppressor.
iv. People had to be persuaded to see the truth instead of being forced to accept truth.
Question. In which session was a compromise worked out regarding the Non cooperation Movement?
Answer : Finally, at the Congress session at Nagpur in December 1920, a compromise was worked out and the Non-Cooperation programme was adopted.
Question. Why was the non-cooperation movement withdrawn?
Answer : i. Gandhiji felt the movement was turning violent in many places and
ii. satyagrahis needed to be properly trained before they would be ready for mass struggles.
iii. Within the Congress, some leaders were by now tired of mass struggles and wanted to participate
in elections to the provincial councils that had been set up by the Government of India Act of 1919.
Question. Why were some congress leaders eager to participate in elections to provincial councils?
Answer : • After the withdrawal of the NCM some within the congress wanted to participate in elections to the provincial councils
• They felt it was important to: –
– oppose British policies within the councils
– Argue for reform and also
– Demonstrate that these councils were not truly democratic
• C.R. Das and Motilal Nehru formed the Swaraj Party within the congress to argue for return to council politics
Question. Describe the brutal repression to control the crowds as the news of Jallianwala incidence spread.
Answer : i. The government responded with brutal repression, seeking to humiliate and terrorise people:
ii. satyagrahis were forced to rub their noses on the ground, crawl on the streets, and do salaam (salute) to all sahibs;
iii. people were flogged and villages (around Gujranwala in Punjab, now in Pakistan) were bombed.
Question. What was Lord Irwin’s announcement in October 1929? What was the response of the Congress leadership?
Answer : i. In an effort to win Indians over, the viceroy, Lord Irwin, announced in October 1929,
– a vague offer of ‘dominion status’ for India in an unspecified future, and
– a Round Table Conference to discuss a future constitution.
ii. This did not satisfy the Congress leaders. The radicals within the Congress, led by Jawaharlal Nehru and Subhas Chandra Bose, became more assertive. The liberals and moderates, who were proposing a constitutional system within the framework of British dominion, gradually lost their influence.
Question. Why did Gandhiji launch the Civil Disobedience Movement ? Explain any three reasons.
Answer : There were several reasons for Gandhissji to launch the Civil Disobedience Movement. Three main reasons were:
(i) The Simon Commission was set in response to the nationalist movement and was to look into the functioning of the constitutional system in India and suggest changes. However, this commission did not have a single Indian member. They were all British.
(ii) In October 1929, Lord Irwin, the viceroy made a vague offer of ‘dominion status’ for India in an unspecified future and a Round Table Conference to discuss the future constitution. This did not satisfy the radicals within the Congress.
(iii) Gandhiji declared that the tax on salt by the British government and its monopoly over the production as the most oppressive rule of the British as it was one of the most essential items of food.
Question. “Gandhiji’s idea of Satyagarha emphasized the Power of truth and the need to search for truth.” In the light of this statement asses the contribution of Gandhiji towards satyagraha. Answer : (i) It suggested that if the cause was true, if the struggle was against injustice, then physical force was not necessary to fight the oppressor.
(ii) Without seeking vengeance or being aggressive, a satyagrahi could win the battle through nonviolence. This could be done by appealing to the conscience of the oppressor.
(iii) People, including the oppressor, had to be persuaded to see the truth, instead of being forced to accept the truth through the use of violence.
(iv) By this struggle, truth was bound to ultimately triumph. Gandhiji believed that this dharma of non-violence could unite all Indians.
Long Answer Type Questions
Question. Explain the measures taken by Gandhiji to eliminate the problem of untouchability.
Answer : The measures adopted by Gandhiji to eradicate the problem of untouchability are enumerated as follows :
(i) Mahatma Gandhi claimed that Swaraj would not come for hundred years if untouchability was not eradicated.
(ii) Mahatma Gandhi himself washed toilets to represent the dignity of the work of a sweeper.
(iii) Gandhiji convinced the upper caste to change their heart and disavow ‘sin of untouchability‘.
(iv) He organised Satyagraha to protect their entrance into temples and access to public wells, tanks, roads and public schools.
(v) He concluded Poona Pact in September 1932 with Dr. B.R. Ambedkar that led to the reservation of some seats for them in provincial and central legislative councils.
Question. Explain the course of the Non-Cooperation Movement in India. Explain the social groups responsible for this movement.
Answer : Diverse social groups that joined the Non-Cooperation Movement were : (i) Middle class people in the town
(ii) Plantation workers (iii) Peasants and tribal people, and
(iv) Business class people.
(i) Middle class people in the towns : The middle stratum consisted of students, teachers and lawyers reacted to the clarion call of Non-Cooperation and social boycott of institutions.
(ii) Plantation Workers : The workers participated in the movement and wanted to rescue themselves from the garb of darkness. They hoped that the Gandhi Raj would give them power to secure land in their own villages.
(iii) Peasants and Tribal people : Peasants and tribal people participated in the movement. The movement was directed against the talukdars and landlords. In their opinion, ‘Swaraj’ meant nonpayment of land dues i.e. land revenues hence the colonial government compelled the tribal people to contribute ‘begar’ for the construction of road, they revolted.
(iv) Business Class People : Merchants and traders showed their reluctance to trade in foreign goods or finance foreign trade. The import of foreign cloth halved between 1921 and 1922 and its value depreciated from ` 102 crore to ` 57 crore.
Question. Why did Mahatma Gandhi re-launch the Civil Disobedience Movement with great apprehension ? Explain.
Answer : In December 1931, Gandhiji went to London to participate in the Second Round Table Conference. However, the negotiations broke down and he returned with a heavy heart. After returning to India, he understood that the government had started a new cycle of repression. Abdul Ghaffar Khan and Jawaharlal Nehru were detained and the Congress was banned. A series of measures had been imposed to obstruct meetings, demonstrations and social boycott. In the later stage, Gandhiji aimed to relaunch the Civil Disobedience Movement.
Question. Participation of different social groups in the Civil Disobedience Movement – Discuss the role/Pparticipation of each of these groups
Answer : ➢ Rich Peasant communities
• Like patidars of Gujarat and Jats of U.P
• Hard hit by trade depression/falling prices/unable to pay govt. revenue and govt. not ready to reduce revenue.
• Became enthusiastic supporters of CDM as it was a struggle against high revenues
• Deeply disappointed when CDM called off in 1931 without revenue rates being revised.
➢ Poor Peasants
• They too were hard hit by depression. Their demands were lowering of the revenue demand and remission of unpaid rents to landlords.
• They joined variety of radical movement led by Socialists and Communist.
• Apprehensive of raising issues that might upset rich peasants/ landlord – congress unwilling to support – “no rent” campaign.
• So the relationship between the poor peasants and the Congress remained uncertain.
➢ Business Classes
• They made huge profits during 1st now they reacted
• Against colonial policies – restricted business activities
• They wanted protection against imports of foreign goods, and a rupee – sterling foreign exchange ratio that would discourage imports.
• Formed Indian industrial and commercial congress (1920) and the Federation of the Indian Chamber of commence and industries (FICCI) in 1927.
• Gave support to CDM by offering financial assistance and refused to buy/sell – imported goods.
• After the failure of round table conference they were apprehensive – spread – militant activities and growing influence of socialism in the congress.
• Participation of Industrial workers only in Nagpur because of industrialists coming closer to –congress.
• Their demands were: against low wages and poor working conditions.
• Congress not too keen to include their demands in CDM as it would distance the industrialists.
• Large scale participation – women in CDM.
• In urban areas they belonged to high caste families. In rural areas they came from rich peasant households
• Increased public role of women did not mean radical change in their position bec:
• Gandhiji convinced- duty of women – look after home, hearth, be good mothers/good wives.
• For a long time cong unwilling to allow women to hold any position of authority within the organization.
Question. Why did political leaders differ sharply over the questions of separate electorates ?
Answer : There was no consensus of opinions among the political leaders related to the aspect of separate electorate. The reasons are as follows :
(i) The Nationalist Congress leaders felt that the policy of ‘Divide and Rule‘ would enervate the Nationalist Movement.
(ii) The Muslim leaders thought that their interest could only be guarded in a Muslim state and not in a Hindu majority state.
(iii) Dr. B.R. Ambedkar, the leader of the depressed classes hugely favoured separate electrorates. However, Gandhi ji felt that separate electorate for Dalits would slow down the pace of their societal integration. Subsequently, Ambedkar accepted the stance of Gandhi ji and concluded ‘Poona Pact‘.
Question. Why did Mahatma Gandhi launch the ‘Non-Cooperation Movement? How did this movement unite the country? Explain.
Answer : Gandhiji launched the Non-Cooperation Movement in 1920 because
◆ He saw this movement as an opportunity to bring Muslims under a unified national movement. When young Muslim leaders like Muhammad Ali and Shaukat Ali approached him about the possibility of a united movement against the British rule.
◆ Gandhiji thought through the Non-Cooperation Movement, British rule in India would collapse within a year and Swaraj would come.
Thus, at the Congress Session in Nagpur in December 1920, the Non-Cooperation programme was finalised and Gandhiji launched the Non-Cooperation Movement.
This movement united the country as
◆ The Non-Cooperation Movement spread from the cities to the countryside. Different sections of our society interpreted this movement differently. The name of Gandhiji invoked to sanction all actions and aspirations.
◆ In Awadh, peasants under the leadership of Baba Ram Chandra revolted against the talukdars and the landlords who demanded very high rent and different taxes from them. The peasant demanded reduction of revenue, abolition of begar and social boycott of oppressive landlords.
◆ In Gudem hills of Andhra Pradesh, Alluri Sitaram Raju inspired by Gandhiji’s ideals and started militant Guerrilla movement for achieving Swaraj.
Question. Who launched the Khilafat Movement? Why was the movement launched?
Answer : The Khilafat Movement was a united struggle launched by Muhammad Ali and Shaukat Ali. Gandhiji saw this as an opportunity to bring Muslims under the umbrella of a unified national movement.
The Khilafat Movement (1919-1924) was a Pan-Islamic, political protest campaign launched by Muslims in British India to influence the British Government and to protect the Ottoman Empire during the aftermath of First World War.
The First World War had ended with the defeat of Ottoman Turkey. There was a fear that the power of the spiritual head of the Islamic world (Khalifa) would be curtailed. To defend his power, a Khilafat Committee was formed in Bombay in 1919. The Khilafat leaders put pressure upon the British Government to give better treatment to Turkey.
Question. ‘The Civil Disobedience Movement was different from the Non-Cooperation Movement.’ Support the statement with examples.
Answer : The Civil Disobedience Movement was different from the Non-Cooperation Movement as
Question. How did the Colonial Government repress the ‘Civil Disobedience Movement‘ ? Explain.
Answer : The ‘Civil Disobedience Movement‘ initiated the boycott of foreign clothes and picketed liquor shops. Peasants showed their reluctance in paying revenues and taxes. At the same time, village officials resigned. The Colonial Government prevented the members from participating in national movements.
(i) In many places, forest people transgressed forest laws and prevented people from entering the reserved forests and grazing cattle. Enraged by the development, the colonial government started detaining the congress leader one by one. This resulted in the outbreak of violent clashes in various places.
(ii) Khan Abdul Ghaffar Khan, a staunch disciple, was detained in April 1930. Various people were assassinated two protested the movement.
(iii) Mahatma Gandhi was detained. Industrial workers of Sholapur captured police post, municipal buildings and railway stations.
(iv) Being frightened by these developments, the British Government adopted a policy of brutal repression.
(v) Peaceful demonstrators were attacked.
Case Based Questions
Question. Read the case/source given below and answer the questions that follow by choosing the appropriate option.
‘To the altar of this revolution we have brought our youth as incense’
Many nationalists thought that the struggle against the British could not be won through non-violence. In 1928, the Hindustan Socialist Republican Army (HSRA) was founded at a meeting in Ferozeshah Kotla ground in Delhi.
Amongst its leaders were Bhagat Singh, Jatin Das and Ajoy Ghosh. In a series of dramatic actions in different parts of India, the HSRA targeted some of the symbols of British power. In April 1929, Bhagat Singh and Batukeswar Dutta threw a bomb in the Legislative Assembly. In the same year there was an attempt to blow up the train that Lord Irwin was travelling in. Bhagat Singh was 23 when he was tried and executed by the colonial government.
During his trial, Bhagat Singh stated that he did not wish to glorify ‘the cult of the bomb and pistol’ but wanted a revolution in society: ‘Revolution is the inalienable right of mankind. Freedom is the imprescriptible birthright of all.
The labourer is the real sustainer of society … To the altar of this revolution we have brought our youth as incense, for no sacrifice is too great for so magnificent a cause. We are content. We await the advent of revolution. Inquilab Zindabad!’
(i) Why Hindustan Socialist Republican Army was formed? With reference to the above context, infer the appropriate option.
(a) To fight against the British colonial rule with the principle of non-violence
(b) To fight against British colonial rule in India
(c) To achieve independence for the country through an armed rebellion if necessary
(d) Both (b) and (c)
Answer : (d) Both (b) and (c)
(ii) Consider the following statements and find the incorrect from the given options.
I. Bhagat Singh and Batukeshwar Dutta threw a bomb in the Central Legislative Assembly.
II. Hindustan Socialist Republican Army was based on the principles given by Mahatma Gandhi.
III. Bhagat Singh wanted a revolution in the society.
(a) Only I
(b) Only II
(c) Only III
(d) Both II and III
Answer : (b) Only II
(iii) What lessons does Bhagat Singh’s life have for modern-day India? Identify the correct option.
(a) He emphasised on socio-economic changes rather than changing political leaders.
(b) He inspired the masses to break social barriers of casteism.
(c) He taught people to shed away the fear of British rulers.
(d) All of the above
Answer : (d) All of the above
(iv) The HSRA and Bhagat Singh focussed on which section of the society to bring a revolution? Identify the correct option.
Answer : (c) Youth
(v) During whose tenure as the Viceroy of India were the great martyrs Bhagat Singh, Sukhdev and Rajguru hanged? Choose the best suitable option.
(a) Lord Canning
(b) Lord Irwin
(c) Lord Minto
(d) Lord Curzon
Answer : (b) Lord Irwin
(vi) Which of the following were the Revolutionary activities of HSRA? Choose the correct option.
(a) Central Assembly Bombing Case.
(b) An attempt to blow up the train that Lord Irwin was travelling in.
(c) Both (a) and (b)
(d) Involved in Lahore Conspiracy Case
Answer : (c) Both (a) and (b)
Question. Read the case/source given below and answer the questions that follows.
The movement started with middle-class participation in the cities. Thousands of students left government- controlled schools and colleges, headmasters and teachers resigned, and lawyers gave up their legal practices. The council elections were boycotted in most provinces except Madras, where the Justice Party, the party of the non-Brahmans, felt-that entering the council was one way of gaining some power- something that usually only Brahmans had access to.
The effects of non-cooperation on the economic front were more dramatic. Foreign goods were boycotted, liquor shops picketed, and foreign cloth burnt in huge bonfires. The import of foreign cloth halved between 1921 and 1922, its value dropping from ₹ 102 crore to ₹ 57 crore. In many places merchants and traders refused to trade in foreign goods or finance foreign trade. As the boycott movement spread, and people began discarding imported clothes and wearing only Indian ones, production of Indian textile mills and handlooms went up.
(i) Explain the role of ‘Justice Party’ in boycotting of Council elections.
Answer : The role of ‘Justice Party’ is that it did not boycotted the council elections. It was the party of non-Brahmans. The party thought that council elections was a opportunity for them to enter the councils and gaining some power.
(ii) How was the effects of ‘Non-Cooperation on the economic front’ dramatic? What was the main cause for boycotting foreign goods during Non-Cooperation Movement?
Answer : The effects of Non-Cooperation Movement were dramatic on economic front as foreign goods were boycotted,
foreign clothes were burnt and foreign trade and financing foreign trade was refused.
The main cause for boycotting foreign goods during Non-Cooperation Movement was to challenge the well-established economic and power structure of Britishers.
(iii) Explain the effect of Boycott movement on foreign textile trade.
Answer : The effects of Boycott movement on foreign textile trade were
◆ People began discarding imported clothes.
◆ People started to wear only Indian clothes.
◆ The import of foreign clothes halved between 1921 and 1922.