Please refer to Neural Control and Coordination Class 11 Biology Exam Questions provided below. These questions and answers for Class 11 Biology have been designed based on the past trend of questions and important topics in your class 11 Biology books. You should go through all Class 11 Biology Important Questions provided by our teachers which will help you to get more marks in upcoming exams.
Class 11 Biology Exam Questions Neural Control and Coordination
Class 11 Biology students should read and understand the important questions and answers provided below for Neural Control and Coordination which will help them to understand all important and difficult topics.
Objective Type Questions
Question. Clusters of neuron cell bodies embedded in the white matter of the brain are referred to as
Question. Pons connects
(a) brain with spinal cord
(b) cerebrum with cerebellum
(c) two-lobes of cerebellum
(d) two cerebral hemispheres
Question. Corpus callosum connects
(a) two cerebral hemispheres
(b) two ventricles of brain
(c) two cerebellar hemispheres
(d) two optic thalamus
Question. Pons varolii in human brain lies
(a) anterior to optic chiasma
(b) posterior to medulla oblongata
(c) ventral to cerebellum
(d) dorsal to diencephalon
Question. Which of the following group of functions was regulated by part of hindbrain?
(a) Sexual behaviour, body temperature, drinking.
(b) Gastric secretion, cardiovascular reflexes, respiration.
(c) Memory and communication, cardiovascular reflexes, respiration.
(d) Gastric secretion, body temperature, Memory and communication.
Question. Twilight vision is also called
(a) scotopic vision and is the function of rods.
(b) scotopic vision and is the function of cones.
(c) photopic vision and is the function of rods.
(d) photopic vision and is the function of cones.
Question. The region of vertebrate’s eye where the optic nerve passes out of the retina is called
(a) yellow spot
(b) optic chiasma
(d) blind spot
Question. Where A stands for axon, D for dendrite, S for synapse, and CB for cell body, a typical sequence of structures is?
Question. The reflex pathway comprises
(a) Atleast two afferent neurons and two efferent neurons
(b) Atleast one afferent neuron and one efferent neuron
(c) Atleast two afferent neurons and one efferent neuron
(d) Atlest one afferent neuron and four efferent neurons
Question. The _____detect all types of changes in the environment and send appropriate signals to CNS
(a) Sensory organs
(b) Eyes and ears only
(c) Skin and nose
(d) Spinal cord
Question. Three layers in wall of each eye ball from inside to outwards are
(a) Sclera, choroid, retina
(b) Retina, choroid, sclera
(c) Choroid, retina, sclera
(d) Choroid, sclera, retina
Question. Which of the following layer of eye ball contains blood vessels and is blue in color?
Question. The size of pupil of eye is controlled by
(c) Ciliary body
Question. The lens in eyeball is
(a) Semitransparent crystalline
(b) Semitransparent and non-crystalline
(c) Transparent crystalline
(d) Opaque crystalline
Question. Which of the following cells are photoreceptor cells in human eye?
(a) Only cones
(b) Only amacrine cells
(c) Only rods
(d) Only rods and cones
Question. Photoreceptor cells are present in the _____ layer of wall of eye ball
Question. The place in eye of human from which optic nerve and blood vessels leaves the eye ball is
(b) Fovea centralis
(d) Blind spot
Question. Cavity of vitreous humour (gel) is
(a) Behind the lens
(b) In front of lens
(c) Between choroid and retina
(d) Between choroid and sclera
Very Short Answer Type Questions:
Question. Which cells of the retina enable us to see coloured objects around us?
Ans. Cone cells of retina unable us to see the colours. There are three types of cones which possess their own characteristic photopigments that respond to red, green and blue light.
Question. While travelling at a higher altitude, a person complains of dizziness and vomiting sensation. Which part of the inner ear is disturbed during the journey?
Ans. The symptoms of dizziness and vomiting, faced by a person travelling at higher altitude is because of the following resaons
(i) The function of Eustachian tube is to equalise the pressure on either sides of the ear drum; sudden elevation in height causes disturbance in maintaining pressure by this area of ear.
(ii) The semicircular ducts, the anterior, posterior and lateral semicircular ducts, are enlarged at one end to give rise to ampulla. Each ampulla contains sensory path of hairs, the cristae, which is concerned with the balancing of the body, Change in altitude brings changes in the reorientation and adjustments in these structures of internal ear causing the above said symptoms.
Question. Rearrange the following in the correct order of involvement in electrical impulse movement.
Ans. The correct order of involvement in electrical impulse movement.
(i) Dendrites (ii) Cell body
(iii) Axon (iv) Axon terminal
(v) Synaptic knob
Question. During resting potential, the axonal membrane is polarised, indicate the movement of +ve and −ve ions leading to polarisation diagrammatically.
Question. Complete the statement by choosing appropriate match among the following.
|Column I||Column II|
|A. Resting potential||Chemicals involved in the transmission of|
impulses at synapses.
|B. Nerve impulse||Gap between the pre synaptic and post synaptic|
|C. Synaptic cleft||Electrical potential difference across the resting|
|D. Neurotransmitters||An electrical wave like response of a neuron to a|
Ans. A.→ (3) B.→ (4) C.→ (2) D.→ (1)
|Column I||Column II|
|A. Resting potential||Electrical potential difference across the|
resting neural membrane.
|B. Nerve impulse||An electrical wave like response of a|
neuron to a stimulation.
|C. Synaptic cleft||Gap between the pre-synaptic and possynaptic|
|D. Neurotransmitters||Chemicals involved in the transmission of|
impulses at synapses.
Question. Our reaction like aggressive behaviour, use of abusive words, restlessness etc. are regulated by brain, name the parts involved.
Ans. The inner part of cerebral hemispheres and a group of associated deep structures called limbic lobe or limbic system along with hypothalamus are involved in the above said functions, i.e., aggressive behaviour, use or abusive words, restlessness, etc.
Question. Arrange the following in the order of reception and transmission of sound wave from the ear drum.Cochlear nerve, external auditory canal, ear drum, stapes, incus, malleus, cochlea.
Ans. External Auditory canal → Eardrum → Malleus → The reception and transmis
sion of sound wares occurs in following order-
Incus → Stapes → Cochlea → Cochlear nerve
Question. What do grey and white matter in the brain represent?
Ans. Grey matter is a major component of CNS consisting of neuronal cell bodies, dendrite, unmyelinatedaxous, glial cells and capillaries.
White matter is also a component of CNS and consists mostly of glial cell and myelinated axons.
Question. Where is the hunger centre located in human brain?
Ans. Hypothalamus contains many centres which control urge for eating and drinking.
Question. Name the structures involved in the protection of the brain.
Ans. The following structures are involved in the protection of brain in animals
(i) Cranium There are 8 cranial bones which form the hard protective outer covering cranium for the brain.
(ii) Meninges The brain is covered with three membranes called meninges.
(a) Piamater Inner most membrane very thin, delicate and vascular and invests the brain closely.
(b) Arachnoid membrane It is like spider we in structure from which its gets its name.
(c) Duramater It is outer most, thick, tough fibrous membrane adhering closely to the inside of the skull.
(iii) Cerebrospinal fluid The cerebrospinal is present in the spaces between the meninges, i.e., arachnoid and duramater, which functions as a pad, absorbing shocks.
Question. Comment upon the role of ear in maintaining the balance of the body and posture.
Ans. The vestibular system is the sensory apparatus of the inner ear that helps the body maintain its postural equilibrium.
There are two sets of organs in inner ear, or labyrinth—The semicircular canals which respond to rotational movements; and the utricle and saccule within the vestibule, which respond to changes in the position of the head with respect to gravity.
Each semicircular canal contains hair cells. Rotation of the head causes a flow of fluid, which in turn causes displacement of the top portion of hair cells embedded in jelly-like capula. Utricle and saccule called otolithic organs contain hair cells blanketed with ting stones called otoconia.
When the head is tilted or body position is changed the displacement of stones causes the hair cells to bend.
Short Answer Type Questions:
Question. Neuron system and computers share certain common features. Comment in five lines.
Ans. The sensory neurons present in various organs sense the environment and extend the message to the brain. So, it is equivalent to input device of computers.
Brain acts as CPU, i.e., Central Processing Unit. The information gathered by sensory neurons is processed by brain and it gives command to the concerned organ to act accordingly. This message is taken or conveyed by motor neurons which act as output devices.
Question. Label the following parts in the given diagram using arrow.
(a) Aqueous chamber
(e) Vitreous chamber
(f) Blind spot
Ans. Representation of the following parts of eye
Question. What is the function described to Eustachian tube?
Ans. The eustachian tube connects the middle ear cavity with the pharynx. It helps in equalising the pressures on either sides of the ear drum. At the pharyngeal opening of the Eustachian tube, is a valve which normally remains closed.
The valve opens during yawning, swallowing and during an abrupt change in altitude, when air enters or leaves the tympanic cavity to equalise the pressure of air on the two sides of the tympanic membrane.
Question. The major parts of the human neural system is depicted below. Fill in the empty boxes with appropriate words.
Ans. The major parts of the human neural system is filled in the boxes with appropriate words
Question. What is the difference between electrical transmission and chemical transmission?
Ans. Differences between electrical transmission and chemical transmission are as given below
Question. If someone receives a blow on the back of neck, what would be the effect on the person’s CNS?
Ans. If a person receives a blow on the back, then it will lead in an impairment of cognitive abilities or physical functioning. It can also result in the disturbance of behavioural or emotional functioning. Cervical injuries often lead to quadriplegia (tetraplegia).
Long Answer Type Questions:
Question. Name the parts of human forebrain indicating their respective functions.
Ans. The forebrain is the largest part of the brain most of which is cerebrum. Other important structures include the thalamus, hypothalamus and the limbic system.
The cerebrum is divided into two cerebral hemisphere connected here by a mass of white matter known is corpus callosum. Each hemispere is split into four lobes. The surface of each hemisphere is made up of grey matter known as the cerebral cortex that is folded to increase the surface area. Various structures of forebrain are given below
The thalamus has many functions including processing and relaying sensory information selectively to various parts of the cerebral cortex, translating signals to the cerebral cortex and also regulating states of sleep and wakefulness. The thalamus plays a major role in regulating arousal levels of consciousness and levels of activity.
The function of the hypothalamus is mainly related to the overall regulation of the endocrine system and closely related to the pituitary gland.
The function of the pituitary is mainly related to the production of hormones as part of the endocrine system.
The cerebral cortex is essential for memory, attention, awareness, thought, language and consciousness. The cerebral cortex is connected to structures such as the thalamus and the basal ganglia, sending information to them along efferent connections and receiving information form them via afferent connections.
The motor cortex areas of the brain are located in both hemispheres of the cortex are related to controlling voluntary movements, especially fine movements.
The sensory areas are the areas theat receive and process information from the senses.
inputs form the thalamus are called primary sensory areas, where vision, hearing and touch are processed. The two hemispheres of the cerebral cortex receive information form the opposite (contra lateral) side of the body.
The association areas of the brain function to produce a perception of the world enabling an animal to interact with their environment effectively. The frontal lobe or prefrontal association complex is involved in planning actions and movement.
The limbic system is principally responsible for emotions and the various types of emotion can affect the activity of the Autonomic Nervous System (ANS) facilitated by the hypothalamus.
The olfactory bulb is responsible for olfaction concerned with sense of small plays.
Question. Explain the structure of middle and internal ear with the help of diagram.
Ans. Ears are a pair of statoacoustic organ meant for both balancing and hearing. In most mammals, the external ear is a leap of tissue also called pinna. It is a part of auditory system. The human ear consists of three main parts external ear, middle, ear and internal ear.
Structure of Middle Ear
The middle ear contains three bones or ossicles–the malleus (hammer), incus (anvil) and stapes (stirr-up). These bones are attached to one another in a chain-like fashion. The malleus is attached to the tympanic membrane and the stapes is attached to the oval window (a membrane beneath the stapes) of cochlea. These three ossicles increase the efficiency of transmission of sound waves to the inner ear.
The middle ear also opens into the Eustachian tube, which connects with the pharynx and maintains the pressure between the middle ear and the outside atmosphere,
Structure of Internal Ear
The inner ear consists of a labyrinth of fluid-filled chambers within temporal bone of the skull. The labyrinth consists of two parts, i.e., the bony and membranous labyrinth. The bony labyrinth is a series of channels.
Inside these channels, membranous labyrinth lies, which is surrounded by a fluid called perilymph. The membranous labyrinth is filled with a fluid called endolymph. The coiled portion of the labyrinth is called cochlea.
The cochlea has two large canals-an upper vestibular canal (scala vestibuli) and a lower tympanic canal (scala typmani)-separated by a small cochlear duct (scala media). The vestibular and tympanic canals contain perilymph and the cochlear duct is filled with endolymph.
At the base of scale vestibuli, the wall of membranous labyrinth comes in contact with the fenestra ovalis, while at the lower end of scala tympani lies the fenestra rotunda.
Question. Explain the process of the transport and release of a neurotransmitter with the help of a labelled diagram showing a complete neuron, axon terminal and synapse.
Ans. A neuron has three main parts
(i) Cell body (ii) Axon
Any stimulus/nerve impulse passes from one neuron to another via axon. This nerve impulse is wave of bioelectric/electrochemical disturbance that passes along neuron during conduction of an excitation.
Transport and release of a neurotransmitter occurs within a synapse. At a chemical synapse, the membranes of the pre- and post-synaptic neurons are separated by a fluid-filled space called synaptic cleft. Chemicals called neurotransmitters are involved in the transmission of impulses at these synapses. The axon terminals contain vesicles filled with these neurotransmitters.
When an impulse (action potential) arrives at the axon terminal, it stimulates the movement of the synaptic vesicles towards the membrane, where they fuse with the plasma membrane and release their neurotransmitters in the synaptic cleft.
The released neurotransmitters bind to their specific receptors, present on the post-synaptic membrane. This binding opens ion channels allowing the entry of ions which can generate a new action potential in the post-synaptic neuron.