(1) India is the highest producer of food and vegetables.
(2) In the Plantation farming a single crop is grown on a large area.
(3) In India Tea, coffee, rubber, sugarcane, banana etc. are the main plantation crops.
(4) Major crops grown in India are Paddy(rice),wheat,millets,pulses, tea, coffee, sugarcane, oilseeds, cotton and jute, etc.
(5) Rabi crops are grown during middle of October to December and are harvested in summer during April to June. Wheat, barley, peas, gram and mustered etc. are main Rabi crops.
(6) Kharif crops are grown in June-July in the different regions of country with the arrival of Monsoons. These crops are harvested in September- October.
(7) The main crops of Kharif season are Rice, Maize, Jowar, Bajra, Tur, Moong, Urad, Cotton, Jute, Groundnut and Soyabean.
(8) The rice is the staple food crop of a majority of the people of India. We are the second largest producer of rice in world after China.
(9) Jowar, bajra and ragi are the important millets grown in India.
(10) India is the leading producer in world in the field of production of pulses.
(11) Agriculture is the process and art of cultivating, sowing, crop growing and animals rearing.
(12) Subsistence Farming-The type of farming with the primitive tools in which farmer do production for the fulfilling of their family needs.
(13) Slash and burn Farming-Farmers clear a patch of land and produce cereals and other food crops to sustain their family. When the soil fertility decreases, the farmers shift and clear a fresh patch of land for cultivation.
(14) Intensive subsistence farming-It is a labour intensive farming, where high doses of biochemical inputs and irrigation are used for obtaining higher production.
(15) Plantation Farming-A type of commercial farming in which a single crop is grown on a large area using capital intensive inputs with the help of migrant labourers.
(16) Crop rotation-Growing different crops on a piece of land to increase the productivity and fertility of land.
(17) Consolidation of holdings(Chakbandi)-Collecting fragmented land holdings to make those economically beneficial.
(18) Green Revolution-Based on the package technology use of high yielding verity(HYV)seeds, fertilisers, modern technology etc. to increase the production especially wheat production.
(19) White Revolution-To improve the breeds of animals for the growth in milk production with the use of modern technology. It is also called Operation Flood.
Question.The major kharif crop out of the following is-
Question. Which out of the following is a Leguminous Cropa-
Fill in the blank :
Question. _________________is a fiber crop. Jute/Cotton/Hemp/Natural Silk
Write True or false :
Question. Urad is an oil seeds crop.
Question. White Revolution relates to the increase in the production of crop .
Question. Wheat is also called a golden fibre.
Question. Jowar, Bajra, Ragi are also called millets .
Question. The slash and burn farming is also known as ‘Ray’ in Vietnam.
Question. Match the following-
|(Crop)||(Major Producing area in India)|
|(a) Tea||(1) Kerala|
|(b) Wheat||(2) Assam|
|(c) Rubber||(3) Uttar Pradesh|
|(d) Sugarcane||(4) Haryana|
a – 2 , b – 4 , c – 1 , d – 3
Very short answer type questions :
Question. Write four examples of oil seeds and pulses?
Pulses-arhar,moong,urad,masur,peas,gram etc. Oil seeds-groundnut, mustard, linseed, sesamum (til), soyabean etc.
Question. What is the rearing of silkworm for the production of silk is called?
Question. Write the name of four Rabi and four Kharif crops of India?
Rabi-wheat,gram,barley,peas,mustard etc. Kharif-paddy, maize, jowar, bajra, arhar, moong etc.
Question. With What is ‘Operation flood’ related to?
To increase the production of the milk.
Question. What is Organic farming?
Farming with natural ways without using fertilisers, pesticides etc. is called organic or carbonic farming.
Question. Which crop is called a golden fibre?
Short/Long answer type questions :
Question. What is the importance of Agriculture in Indian economy?
(i) Two third of population is engaged in agricultural activities.
(ii) Agriculture is a primary activity.
(iii) Providing raw material for various industries.
(iv) An age old economic activity of India.
(v) Over these years, cultivation method have changed significantly.
Question. Write two features of Intensive farming?
(i) High doses of biochemical inputs and irrigation are used for obtaining higher production.
(ii) Due to small land holding size many crops are grown which leads to enormous pressure on agricultural land.
Question. Write about the institutional reforms introduced by the Indian Government in favour of farmers?
(i) Provision of crop insurance facility.(fasal bima)
(ii) Loan facilities to the farmers and development of grameen and cooperative banks.
(iii) Announces minimum support price (MSP), remunerative and procurement prices for important crops.
(iv) Special weather bulletins and agricultural programmes for farmers.
(v) Broadcasting of agricultural programmes on T.V. and radio related with new technology, tools, fertilisers etc.
Question. Desribe about the causes responsible for the declining food production in India?
(i) Due to competition with non-agricultural land use, reducing sown area.
(ii) Declining fertility of land and production due to access use of chemical fertilisers and pesticides.
(iii) The rising problems of water scarcity and salinity due to unable and unsuitable water management.
(iv) Due to overexploitation of under ground water the water level has been fallen which resulted in increasing agricultural cost.
(v) Inadequate storing capacity and lack of markets.
Question. Write two characteristics of Plantation farming?
(i) Grown on a large area.
(ii) Needs more capital and labour.
Question. By which other names slash and burn farming or shifting agriculture is known in different countries?
(i) Mexico and Central America-Milpa
(vi) Central Africa-Masole
Question. Write the two characteristics of subsistence farming?
(i) Farming on small pieces of lands with traditional methods and tools.
(ii) Often depends on monsoon, natural fertility of soil and the environmental circumstances of crop growing.
Question. Distinguish between the intensive subsistence farming and commercial farming?
Question. Name any four fibre crops grown in India? Out of these which fibre is not obtained directly from the crops? Write the name of it’s production method?
(i) Cotton, Jute, Hemp and natural Silk.
Question. Describre the major challenges faced by the farmers in India?
(i) Uncertainty of Monsoon.
(ii) Poverty and vicious cycle of Debt.
(iii) Migration towards cities. Withdrawal from agricultural investment.
(iv) Difficulty in reaching Government facilities and middle men.
(v) International competition and reduction in public investment.
Question. Write any five ways of Agricultural reforms in India?
(i) Good irrigation system, Organic or bio manure, Use of modern agricultural tools.
(ii) Direct help to farmers, subsidy direct in account.
(iii) Government help, easy and cheap loans.
(iv) Easy accessibility of electricity and water.
(v) Accessibility up to markets.
(vi) Crop insurance to protect from flood, drought, cyclone, fire, and insects.
(vii) Minimum support price(MSP),Grameen bank, Kissan card etc.
(viii) Education about agriculture, special weather bulletins.
(ix) National and international agricultural seminar and accessibility of common farmers .
(x) Establishment of school, collages and research institute of Agriculture and their use. Practice the following maps and fill the outline maps.
Question. Describe the four negative impacts of green revolution on Indian Agricultural?
Negative Impacts of Green Revolution on Indian Agriculture.
l. Land degradation due to overuse of chemicals.
ll. Lowering the water level due to over-irrigation.
lll. Vanishing bio-diversity.
iv. Difference between Rich and poor farmers is increasing.