Students can refer to Notes And Questions For NCERT Class 10 Social Science The Age of Industrialisation below designed as per the latest syllabus and examination pattern for CBSE Class 10 Social Science
Key Concepts Of The Chapter
The coming up of Factory
• The Earliest factories in the world came up in Engladn in 1730’s.
• First symbol of this new era was cotton.
• Factors that made it possible : Series of inventions and changes within the process of production.
• All the processes of production were brought under one roof and management.
The pace of Industrial Change
• Industrialisation does not mean only the growth of factory Industties.
• Cotton and metal Industries were changed rapidly and were the most dynamic Industries in Britain. Cotton was the leading sector in the first phase (till 1840).
• Iron and steel Industries grew rapidly with the expansion of railways in England from 1840’s and from 1860’s in Colonies.
• New Industries however could not easily displace the existing traditional Industries. By the end of 19th century less than 20% of total workforce was employed in the Industrial sector.
• Other traditional Industries were much less influenced by the steam powered or metal Industries. However they did not remain stagnant either. Ordinary and small innovations were the basis of growth in many non-mechanised sector.
List of the Workers in England
• Overall the life of the workers was miserable.
• Scarcity of jobs because of abundance of labor in the market.
• Actual possibility of getting a job depended on existing net work of friendship and kin relations.
• Most of the work was seasonal so prolonged periods without work.
• Real wages fell so poverty increased among workers.
• Fear of underployment made workers hostile to the new technology and machines were attacked by the workers.
• After 1840’s rise in employment opportunities due to increase in building activities, widening of roads, digging of tunnels, laying of drainage, sewer etc.
Industrialisation in the Colonies
What happned to weavers (with the coming of Europeon) trading companies
• Before establishing political control by East India Company : the weavers were in a better position as there were many buyers for their priduct so they could bargain and try selling the produce to the best buyer.
After stablishing Political Control by East India Company
• East India company 1760’s on wards established its monopoly over Indian trade.
• The existing traders and brokers were eliminated and direct control over the weaver was established.
• Weavers were prevented from dealing with other buyers.
• A paid servant Gomashta was appointed to supervise weavers. Reports of clashes between Gomashtas and weavers.
• The price weavers received from the company was miserably low.
The Pecularities of Industrial gwoth :
• European managing agencies, which doninated Industrial prodution were interested in producing only those goods which were required for export trade and not for sale in India. For ex. tea, coffee, Indigo, Jute, mining.
• Indian businessmen set up those Industties (in late 19th century) which would not compete with manchester goods. For ex. Yearn was not imported so early cotton mills produced yarn rather than fabric.
• First decade of 20th century pattern of Industrialisation changed.
• Swadeshi movement (1905) mobilised people to boycott foreign cloth so textile production began in India Moreover yarn export to China declined so Industrialists shifted from Yarn to cloth production. Cotton piece goods production doubled between 1900 and 1912.
• First world war gave a boost Industrial production in India. New factories were set up in India as British mills were busy with war production.
Small Scale Industries Predominate
• Even after the growth of factories, very few Industrial centres located mainly in Bengal and Bombay.
• Only a small proportion of the total Industrial labour worked in factories. 5% in 1911 and 10% in 1931. Rest worked in small workshops and household units.
• Series of inventions improved the technique of production in handloom sector and handloom cloth production expanded steadily. One such invention was flyshutfle.
• Some specialised weaves could not be produced by mills so they were continued to be produced by weavers. For ex. Saris with woven borders, lungis and handkerchief of Madras.
• Some groups of weavers survived the competition with mill Industries better than others for example weavers weaving fives variety of clothes because demand for these goods did not fluctuate even during bad harvest years.
Timeline of Events
1600: The East India company was established
1730: The earliest factories in England were setup
1760: Britian imported New cotton to feed its cotton industry
1764: James Hargreaves, devised spinning Jenny
1767: Richard Arkwright established the cotton mill
1781: James watt improvised steam engine & patented it
1785: Cart wright invented the powerloom which used steam power for spinning & weaving
1830-1840: Dwarkanath Tagore setup 6 joint stock companies in Bengal
1840: Cotton was the leading sector in the first phase of Industrialisation in Britain.
1850: Railway station developed all over London
1854: The first cotton mill was established in Bombay
1855: The first Jute Mill was set up in Bengal
1860: The supply of cotton reduced because of American Civil War
1860: Elgin Mill was started in Kanpur
1861: The first cotton mill was setup in Ahmedabad
1873: Britain exported Iron & Steel
1874: The first spinning & weaving mill & Madras began its production
1900: E.T paul music company published “Dawn of Century”
1912: J.N. Tata set up first Iron & Steel works in Jameshedpur
1917: Seth Hukumchand set up first Jute Mill in Calcutta
1941: Use of fly shuttle in more than 35 looms
Points to be Remember
1. Orient-The countries of the East especially East Asia
2. Capital-That part of money when invested is used for trade purpose.
3. Socialism- Where factors of production are held by the government.
4. Spenning Jenny-Invented by James Hargreaves in 1764. It accelerated production.
5. Staples: A person who ‘Staples’ or sorts wool according to fibre.
6. Fuller: A person who ‘Fulls’ that it gathers cloth by pleating.
7. Carding: The process in when fibres such as cotton or wool are prepared prior to spinning.