Key Points and Definitions:
1. 96.5 per cent of the total volume of world’s water is estimated to exist as oceans and only 2.5 percent as freshwater.
2. India receives nearly 4 percent of the global precipitation and ranks 133 in the world in terms of water availability per person per annum.
3. By 2025. it is predicted that large parts of India will join countries or regions having absolute water scarcity
4. Water scarcity in most cases is caused by over- exploitation, excessive use and unequal access to water amot different social groups.
5. Water resources are being over-exploited to expand irrigated areas and dry-season agriculture.
6. Intensive industrialisation and urbanisations has made matters worse by exerting pressure on existing freshwater resources.
7. Water bodies are polluted by domestic and industrial wastes, chemicals, pesticides and fertilisers used in agriculture
8. In the first century B.C.. Sringaverapura near Allahabad had sophisticated water harvesting system channelling the flood water of the river Ganga.
9. In the 11th Century. Bhopal Lake, one of the largest artificial lakes of its time was built.
10. Dam is a barrier across flowing water that obstructs, directs or retards the flow, often creating a reservoir, lake or impoundment.
11. Jawaharlal Nehru proudly proclaimed the dams as the ‘Temples of modern India’.
12. Narmada Bachao Andolan’ and the ‘Tehri Dam Andolan’ were started against large multi-purpose river projects.
15. Rainwater Harvesting is the collection and storage of rain, rather than allowing it to run off.