Please refer to Comparative Development Experience of India with its Neighbours Class 11 Economics Notes and important questions below. The Class 11 Economics Chapter wise notes have been prepared based on the latest syllabus issued for the current academic year by CBSE. Students should revise these notes and go through important Class 11 Economics examination questions given below to obtain better marks in exams
Comparative Development Experience of India with its Neighbours Class 11 Economics Notes and Questions
The below Class 11 Comparative Development Experience of India with its Neighbours notes have been designed by expert Economics teachers. These will help you a lot to understand all the important topics given in your NCERT Class 11 Economics textbook. Refer to Chapter 10 Comparative Development Experience of India with its Neighbours Notes below which have been designed as per the latest syllabus issued by CBSE and will be very useful for upcoming examinations to help clear your concepts and get better marks in examinations.
• Over the last two decades or so, the economic transformation that is taking place in different countries across the world, partly because of the process of globalisation, has both short as well as long-term implications for each country, including India.
• Nations have been primarily trying to adopt various means which will strengthen their own domestic economies.
• To this effect, they are forming regional and global economic groupings such as the SAARC, European Union, ASEAN, G-8, G-20, BRICS etc.
Developmental P Ath—A Snapshot View
• While India and Pakistan became independent nations in 1947, People’s Republic of China was established in 1949.
• In a speech at that time, Jawaharlal Nehru had said, “These new and revolutionary changes in China and India, even though they differ in content, symbolise the new spirit of Asia and new vitality which is finding expression in the countries in Asia.”
• All three countries had started planning their development strategies in similar ways.
• While India announced its first Five Year Plan for 1951–56, Pakistan announced its first five-year plan, now called the Medium-Term Development Plan, in 1956. China announced its First Five Year Plan in 1953.
• Till the 1980s, all the three countries had similar growth rates and per capita incomes.
• If we look at the global population, out of every six persons living in this world, one is an Indian and another a Chinese.
• We shall compare some demographic indicators of India, China and Pakistan.
• The population of Pakistan is very small and accounts for roughly about one-tenth of China or India.
• In recent times, all three countries are adopting various measures to improve the situation. One child norm and the resultant arrest in the growth of population also have other implications.
• For instance, after a few decades, in China, there will be more elderly people in proportion to young people. This led China to allow couples to have two children.
• The fertility rate is also low in China and very high in Pakistan. Urbanisation is high in China with India having 33 per cent of its people living in urban areas.
Indicators of Human Development
• The importance of human development indicators in the lower classes and the position of many developed and developing countries.
• Let us look how India, China and Pakistan have performed in some of the select indicators of human development. Look at Table
• The above table shows that China is moving ahead of India and Pakistan.
• This is true for many indicators — income indicator such as GDP per capita, or proportion of population below poverty line or health indicators such as mortality rates, access to sanitation, literacy, life expectancy or malnourishment.
• India, China and Pakistan have travelled more than five decades of developmental path with varied results. Till the late 1970s, all of them were maintaining the same level of low development. The last three decades have taken these countries to different levels.
• India, with democratic institutions, performed moderately, but a majority of its people still depend on agriculture. Infrastructure is lacking in many parts of the country. It is yet to raise the level of living of more than one-fourth of its population that lives below the poverty line.
• Yet, last three years, many macroeconomic indicators began showing positive and higher growth rates reflecting the economic recovery.
• In China, the lack of political freedom and its implications for human rights are major concerns; yet, in the last three decades, it used the ‘market system without losing political commitment’ and succeeded in raising the level of growth along with alleviation of poverty.
• Public intervention in providing social infrastructure even prior to reforms has brought about positive results in human development indicators in China.