Please refer to Employment Growth, Informalisation and Related Issues Class 11 Economics Notes and important questions below. The Class 11 Economics Chapter wise notes have been prepared based on the latest syllabus issued for the current academic year by CBSE. Students should revise these notes and go through important Class 11 Economics examination questions given below to obtain better marks in exams
Employment Growth, Informalisation and Related Issues Class 11 Economics Notes and Questions
The below Class 11 Employment Growth, Informalisation and Related Issues notes have been designed by expert Economics teachers. These will help you a lot to understand all the important topics given in your NCERT Class 11 Economics textbook. Refer to Chapter 7 Employment Growth, Informalisation and Related Issues Notes below which have been designed as per the latest syllabus issued by CBSE and will be very useful for upcoming examinations to help clear your concepts and get better marks in examinations.
• People do a variety of work. Some work on farms, in factories, banks, shops and many other workplaces; yet a few others work at home. Work at home includes not only traditional work but also modern jobs like programming work in the IT industry.
• People work for ‘earning’ a living. Some people get, or have, money by inheriting it, not working for it.
• Having recognised the importance of work, Mahatma Gandhi insisted upon education and training through a variety of works including craft.
• It helps us to analyse the contribution made by different industries and sectors towards national income. It also helps us to address many social issues such as exploitation of marginalised sections of the society, child labour etc.
Self-Employed and Hired Workers
• Workers who own and operate an enterprise to earn their livelihood are known as self-employed.
• Casual wage labourers are casually engaged in others’ farms and, in return, get a remuneration for the work done
• When a worker is engaged by someone or an enterprise and paid his or her wages on a regular basis, they are known as regular salaried employees.
Growth and Changing Structure Of Employment
• There are two developmental indicators — growth of employment and GDP. Sixty years of planned development have been aimed at expansion of the economy through increase in national output and employment.
• During the period 1950–2010, Gross Domestic Product (GDP) of India grew positively and was higher than the employment growth.
• In the late 1990s: employment growth started declining and reached the level of growth that India had in the early stages of planning. During these years, we also find a widening gap between the growth of GDP and employment.
• Distribution of workforce by industrial sectors shows substantial shift from farm work to non-farm work.
• In 1972-73, about 74 per cent of workforce was engaged in primary sector and in 2011-12, this proportion has
declined to about 50 per cent. Secondary and service sectors are showing promising future for the Indian workforce.
• The distribution of workforce in different status indicates that over the last four decades (1972-2012), people have moved from self-employment and regular salaried employment to casual wage work.
• Scholars call the process of moving from self-employment and regular salaried employment to casual wage
work as casualisation of workforce.
• NSSO defines unemployment as a situation in which all those who, owing to lack of work, are not working but either seek work through employment exchanges, intermediaries, friends or relatives or by making applications to prospective employers or express their willingness or availability for work under the prevailing condition of work and remunerations.
• There are a variety of ways by which an unemployed person is identified. Economists define unemployed person as one who is not able to get employment of even one hour in half a day.
• There are three sources of data on unemployment: Reports of Census of India, National Sample Survey Organisation’s Reports of Employment and Unemployment Situation and Directorate General of Employment and Training Data of Registration with Employment Exchanges.
• Economists call unemployment prevailing in Indian farms as disguised unemployment.
What is disguised unemployment?
• Suppose a farmer has four acres of land and he actually needs only two workers and himself to carry out various operations on his farm in a year, but if he employs five workers and his family members such as his wife and children, this situation is known as disguised unemployment.
• When there is no work to do on farms, people go to urban areas and look for jobs. This kind of unemployment is known as seasonal unemployment. This is also a common form of unemployment prevailing in India.
• There has been a change in the structure of workforce in India. Newly emerging jobs are found mostly in the service sector.
• The expansion of the service sector and the advent of high technology now frequently permit a highly competitive existence for efficient small scale and often individual enterprises or specialist workers side by side with the multinationals.
• Outsourcing of work is becoming a common practice.
• The traditional notion of the modern factory or office, as a result, has been altering in such a manner that for many the home is becoming the workplace.
• All of this change has not gone in favour of the individual worker. The nature of employment has become more informal with only limited availability of social security measures to the workers.
• In the last two decades, there has been rapid growth in the gross domestic product, but without simultaneous increase in employment opportunities.
• This has forced the government to take up initiatives in generating employment opportunities particularly in the rural areas.