Please refer to Environment Sustainable Development Class 11 Economics Notes and important questions below. The Class 11 Economics Chapter wise notes have been prepared based on the latest syllabus issued for the current academic year by CBSE. Students should revise these notes and go through important Class 11 Economics examination questions given below to obtain better marks in exams
Environment Sustainable Development Class 11 Economics Notes and Questions
The below Class 11 Environment Sustainable Development notes have been designed by expert Economics teachers. These will help you a lot to understand all the important topics given in your NCERT Class 11 Economics textbook. Refer to Chapter 9 Environment Sustainable Development Notes below which have been designed as per the latest syllabus issued by CBSE and will be very useful for upcoming examinations to help clear your concepts and get better marks in examinations.
• The economic development that we have achieved so far has come at a very heavy price at the cost of
• To understand the unsustainable path of development that we have taken and the challenges of sustainable
development, we have to first understand the significance and contribution of environment to economic
Environment – Definition and Functions
• Environment is defined as the total planetary inheritance and the totality of all resources. It includes all the biotic and abiotic factors that influence each other.
• While all living elements the birds, animals and plants, forests, fisheries etc. are biotic elements, abiotic elements include air, water, land etc.
• Rocks and sunlight are all examples of abiotic elements of the environment. A study of the environment then
calls for a study of the interrelationship between these biotic and abiotic components of the environment.
Functions of the Environment: –
• The environment performs four vital functions
I. It supplies resources: resources here include both renewable and non-renewable resources.
II. It assimilates waste
III. It sustains life by providing genetic and bio diversity and (iv) it also provides aesthetic services like scenery etc.
Renewable resources are those which can be used without the possibility of the resource becoming depleted or exhausted. That is, a continuous supply of the resource remains available. Non-renewable resources, on the other hand, are those which get exhausted with extraction and use The environment is able to perform these functions without any interruption as long as the demand on these functions is within it carrying capacity. Absorptive capacity means the ability of the environment to absorb degradation. To make matters worse, global environmental issues such as global warming and ozone depletion also contribute to increased financial commitments for the government. Thus, it is clear that the opportunity costs of negative environmental impacts are high.
State of India’s Environment
• India has abundant natural resources in terms of rich quality of soil, hundreds of rivers and tributaries, lush green forests, plenty of mineral deposits beneath the land surface, vast stretch of the Indian Ocean, ranges of mountains, etc.
• The black soil of the Deccan Plateau is particularly suitable for cultivation of cotton, leading to concentration of textile industries in this region.
• The Indo-Gangetic plains spread from the Arabian Sea to the Bay of Bengal are one of the most fertile, intensively cultivated and densely populated regions in the world.
• The developmental activities in India have resulted in pressure on its finite natural resources, besides creating impacts on human health and well-being.
• Some of the factors responsible for land degradation are
I. Loss of vegetation occurring due to deforestation
II. Unsustainable fuel wood and fodder extraction
III. Shifting cultivation
IV. Encroachment into forest lands
V. Forest fires and over grazing
VI. Non-adoption of adequate soil conservation measures
VII. Improper crop rotation
VIII. Indiscriminate use of agro-chemicals such as fertilisers and pesticides
IX. Improper planning and management of irrigation systems
X. Extraction of ground water in excess of the recharge capacity
XI. Open access resource and
XII. Poverty of the agriculture-dependent people.
• In India, air pollution is widespread in urban areas where vehicles are the major contributors and in a few other areas which have a high concentration of industries and thermal power plants.
• The CPCB (Central Pollution Control Board) has identified seventeen categories of industries (large and medium scale) as significantly polluting.
• Environment and economy are interdependent and need each other. Hence, development that ignores its repercussions on the environment will destroy the environment that sustains life forms.
• The concept of sustainable development was emphasised by the United Nations Conference on
Environment and Development (UNCED), which defined it as: ‘Development that meets the need of the present generation without compromising the ability of the future generation to meet their own needs’.
• The Brundtland Commission emphasises on protecting the future generation. This is in line with the argument of the environmentalists who emphasise that we have a moral obligation to hand over the planet earth in good order to the future generation; that is, the present generation should bequeath a better environment to the future generation.
Strategies for Sustainable Development
• Use of Non-conventional Sources of Energy: India, as you know, is hugely dependent on thermal and hydropower plants to meet its power needs.
• Thermal power plants emit large quantities of carbon dioxide which is a greenhouse gas. It also produces fly ash which, if not used properly, can cause pollution of water bodies, land and other components of the environment.
• Hydroelectric projects inundate forests and interfere with the natural flow of water in catchment areas and the river basins.
• Wind power and solar rays are good examples of conventional but cleaner and greener energy sources but are not yet been explored on a large scale due to lack of technological devices.
LPG, Gobar Gas in Rural Areas
• Households in rural areas generally use wood, dung cake or other biomass as fuel.
• This practice has several adverse implications like deforestation, reduction in green cover, wastage of cattle dung and air pollution.
• To rectify the situation, subsidised LPG is being provided. In addition, Gobar gas plants are being provided through easy loans and subsidy.
CNG in Urban Areas
• In Delhi, the use of Compressed Natural Gas (CNG) as fuel in public transport system has significantly lowered air pollution and the air has become cleaner in the last few years.
• In areas where speed of wind is usually high, wind mills can provide electricity without any adverse impact on the environment.
• Wind turbines move with the wind and electricity is generated. No doubt, the initial cost is high. But the benefits are such that the high cost gets easily absorbed.
Solar Power through Photovoltaic Cells
• India is naturally endowed with a large quantity of solar energy in the form of sunlight. We use it in different ways. Now, with the help of photovoltaic cells, solar energy can be converted into electricity.
• This technology is extremely useful for remote areas and for places where supply of power through grid or power lines is either not possible or proves very costly.
• This technique is also totally free from pollution. In recent years India is taking efforts to increase the power generation through solar.
• India is also leading an International body called International Solar Alliance (ISA).
• In mountainous regions, streams can be found almost everywhere. A large percentage of such streams are perennial.
• Mini-hydel plants use the energy of such streams to move small turbines.
Traditional Knowledge and Practices: –
• Traditionally, Indian people have been close to their environment. They have been more a component of the
environment and not its controller.
• If we look back at our agriculture system, healthcare system, housing, transport etc., we find that all practices have been environment friendly.
• With the sudden onslaught of the western system of treatment, we were ignoring our traditional systems such as Ayurveda, Unani, Tibetan and folk systems. These healthcare systems are in great demand again for treating chronic health problems.
Bio composting: –
• In our quest to increase agricultural production during the last five decades or so, we almost totally neglected the use of compost and completely switched over to chemical fertilisers.
• The result is that large tracts of productive land have been adversely affected, water bodies including ground water system have suffered due to chemical contamination and demand for irrigation has been going up year after year.
• Earthworms can convert organic matter into compost faster than the normal composting process.
Biopest Control: –
• With the advent of green revolution, the entire country entered into a frenzy to use more and more chemical pesticides for higher yield.
• Soon, the adverse impacts began to show; food products were contaminated, soil, water bodies and even ground water were polluted with pesticides. Even milk, meat and fishes were found to be contaminated.
• Mixed cropping and growing different crops in consecutive years on the same land have also helped farmers.
• Sustainable development has become a catch phrase today. It is ‘indeed’ a paradigm shift in development thinking.
• Though it has been interpreted in a number of ways, adherence to this path ensures lasting development and non-declining welfare for all.
• Economic development, which aimed at increasing the production of goods and services to meet the needs of a rising population, puts greater pressure on the environment. In the initial stages of development, the demand for environmental resources was less than that of supply.
• Now the world is faced with increased demand for environmental resources but their supply is limited due to overuse and misuse.
• Sustainable development aims at promoting the kind of development that minimises environmental problems and meets the needs of the present generation without compromising the ability of the future generation to meet their own needs.