Please refer to Planning and Sustainable Development in Indian Context Class 12 Geography Exam Questions provided below. These questions and answers for Class 12 Geography have been designed based on the past trend of questions and important topics in your class 12 Geography books. You should go through all Class 12 Geography Important Questions provided by our teachers which will help you to get more marks in upcoming exams.
Class 12 Geography Exam Questions Planning and Sustainable Development in Indian Context
Class 12 Geography students should read and understand the important questions and answers provided below for Planning and Sustainable Development in Indian Context which will help them to understand all important and difficult topics.
Short Answer Type Questions
Question. How has the introduction of Indira Gandhi Canal irrigation in the drylands of Rajasthan influenced the environmental conditions of the region positively? Explain in any three points.
Answer. The positive impacts of Indira Gandhi Canal irrigation on the environmental conditions of the dryland area of Rajasthan are
– CAD programmes (Command Area Development) i.e. afforestation and pasture development programmes developed the desertic area into a green land.
– Due to availability of moisture for a longtime and afforestation, wind erosion has reduced considerably.
– Due to canal development the health of soil is improved as soil erosion is reduced and problem of siltation has also declined.
Question. Discuss the social benefits of tribal sub-plan in the Bharmaur Region.
Answer. Social benefits of tribal sub-plan were
– There are tremendous increase in literacy rate, e.g. the female literacy rate in the region increased from 1.88% in 1971 to 65% in 2011.
– Decline in gender inequality i.e. the difference between male and female literacy rate has declined.
– Improvement in sex-ratio, decline in child marriages.
– Basic social facilities like education and health care were improved.
– The vulnerable section of the society was benefitted by this plan.
Question. Discuss the two types of planning approaches in India.
Answer. The two approaches of planning are
(i) Sectoral Planning Approach In this approach plans are formulated for the development of various sectors of the economy, e.g. agriculture, irrigation, manufacturing, power, construction, transport,communication, social infrastructure, services, etc.
(ii) Regional Planning Approach In this approach, the main emphasis is on making such plans which may help to reduce regional disparities and bring uniform economic development across all regions. Thus, this approach aims to reduce regional imbalances.
Question. What were the shortcomings of Integrated Tribal Development Project in Bharmaur?
Answer. The shortcomings to Integrated Tribal Development Project are
– In terms of infrastructural facilities, the remote villages in Tundah and Kugti areas are still not developed.
– The method of crop cultivation is still traditional in nature.
– Even though pastoralism has declined but still a sizeable portion of the Gaddis migrate to Kangra and surrounding areas in order to earn living from wage labour during the cold season.
– It was not implemented equally in whole region.
– All the problem of the region were not addressed by this plan.
Question. ‘‘The target area planning is essential to reduce regional and social disparities in India.’’ Support the statement with suitable example.
Answer. It is true that the target area planning is essential to reduce regional and social disparities in India as in this approach, such programmes are formed which focus on specific backward and under developed areas like hill areas, deserts, drought prone areas etc. Normally economic progress of a region depends on its resources but some of the resource rich areas are also economically backward because of lack of technology and proper utilisation of resources. Therefore, to reduce such regional and social disparities Planning Commission introduced the target area approach of planning.
Some outstanding examples of programmes for development of backward areas are Command Area Development Programme, Drought Prone Area Development Programme, Desert Development Programme, Hill Area Development Programme, etc. These area specific programme helps to remove regional inequalities and to bring inclusive development.
Long Answer Type Questions
Question. Explain in brief the purpose of Target Area Programme with suitable examples from India.
Answer. The main purpose of the Target Area Programme is to develop the economically backward areas. There are regional imbalances in economic development which is lagging behind the economic sector. In order to combat both regional and social disparities, the planning commission introduced the target area and target group approach to planning. Some of the examples of these are
Target Area Programme
(i) Command Area Development Programme.
(ii) Drought Prone Area Development Programme.
(iii) Desert Development Programme.
(iv) Hill Area Development Programme.
Target Group Programmes
(i) The Small Farmers Development Agency (SFDA).
(ii) Marginal Farmers Development Agency (MFDA).
As part of target area planning in the Eighth Five Year Plan, special programmes were designed to develop infrastructure in hill areas. North Eastern states, tribal areas and backward areas integrated tribal development project of Bharmaur region in Himachal Pradesh, Indira Gandhi Canal Command Area Project in Rajasthan are some
examples of such programmes.
Question. Explain any five measures necessary for the promotion of sustainable development in ‘Indira Gandhi Canal Command Area’.
Or Describe any five measures needed for the promotion of sustainable development in the ‘Indira Gandhi Canal Command Area’.
Answer. Measures for promotion of sustainability in ‘Indira Gandhi Canal Command Area’ are
(i) Rigorous implementation of water management policy is the first and foremost requirement of this project.
(ii) Adoption of plantation crops such as citrus fruits, instead of water intensive crops.
(iii) In order to reduce the conveyance loss of water, few important programmes shall be taken into account such as the CAD (Command Area Development) programmes i.e.
– Lining of water courses.
– Land development and levelling.
– Warabandi system (means equal distribution of canal water in the command area of outlet).
(iv) The areas should be reclaimed that got affected by water logging and soil salinity.
(v) Promoting eco-development in the fragile environment especially in stage II command area through afforestation, shelter belt, plantation and pasture development activities.
Question. Write a short note on Drought Prone Area Programme. How does this programme help in the development of dryland agriculture in India?
Answer. Drought Prone Area Programme was initiated in Fourth Five Year Plan to provide employment to the rural poor in drought prone areas and to create productive assets. The main emphasis of this programme was on integrated development of the area through irrigation projects, land development programmes, afforestation, grassland development, rural electrification and programmes of infrastructural development such as electricity, roads, market, credit and services.
The Drought Prone Area development programme has helped in developing the dryland agriculture in India by the creation of basic infrastructure such as roads, electricity, markets etc. It also helped in many other things which are
l Increasing the availability of soil moisture by providing irrigation. This has improved the productivity of agriculture and livestock.
l Longer availability of soil moisture and afforestation programmes have resulted in greening of land.
l Traditional crops have been replaced by cash crops and crops which have high value in the markets. This has improved farmer’s incomes.
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