Recording of Transactions – I Class 11 Accountancy Exam Questions

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Class 11 Accountancy Exam Questions Recording of Transactions – I

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Business Transactions and Source Documents – The first stage in the process of accounting is recording of business transactions. In order to record the same there must be some documents in support of it. The documents on the basis of which transactions are recorded in the books of accounts are known as source documents. They provide information about the n ature of transactions and also the actual amount involved in it. The verifiable objective principle of accounting requires that each recorded transactions must have a supporting document as evidence.
The source document is the origin of a transaction and it initiates the accounting process.Invoices, vouchers, receipts, cash memos, bills etc. are the examples.

Accounting Vouchers – Vouchers are classified as cash vouchers, debit vouchers, credit vouchers, journal vouchers etc. A transaction with one debit and one credit is a simple transaction and the voucher prepared for it is known as Transaction Voucher. 

Transactions with multiple debits / credits and one debit / credit are called compound transactions. Voucher prepared for such transaction is compound voucher. A compound voucher may be Debit Voucher or Credit Voucher.
Debit Voucher – A voucher which records for a transaction which has two or more debits and one credit is called Debit Voucher. Usually it is used for expenses or expenditures.  

Credit Voucher – A voucher which records for a transaction with two or more credits and one debit is called Credit Voucher. It is used to record incomes and gains. 

Journal Voucher – Transactions with multiple debits and multiple credits are called complex transactions and the accounting voucher prepared for such transaction is known as Complex Voucher/ Journal Voucher 

Accounting equation – It is a statement of equality between the assets and liabilities including capital. Therefore,

Equities include both owner’s equity or capital and creditor’s equity or liabilities. Therefore, the accounting equation may be as follows: 

The accounting equation is also called as the Balance Sheet equation as it gives the fundamental relationship among the components of a Balance sheet ie: assets, liabilities and capital.
At the time of recording transactions, the test of equality is always kept in mind. That means,every transaction is expressed in terms of accounting equation i.e. Assets = Capital +Liabilities.
Rules for Debit and Credit – Every transaction has a dual aspect – the receiving aspect is called Debit and the giving aspect is called Credit. In order to record transactions in the books of original entry, it is necessary to identify the debit and credit aspects of each transaction.
This is done in accordance with the rules of debit and credit applicable to different types of accounts. According to modern approach, business transactions are divided into five categories, they are Assets, Liabilities, Capital, Income (Revenue) and Expenses.
The rules for debit and credit in respect of various categories are given below: 

Type of AccountIf DebitedIf Debited

**Traditional approach for rules of debit and credit – Under this approach, the accounts are classified into three, namely Personal Account, Real Account and Nominal Account.

Type of accountDebitCredit
Personal accountThe receiverThe giver
Real accountWhat comes inWhat goes out
Nominal accountAll expenses and lossesAll incomes and gains

Personal Account – It includes natural persons or physical persons accounts like, Rajan’s Account, Sobha’s account, capital account, drawings account, bank account, and accounts of artificial or legal persons such as, ABC Paper Mart account, Omega Sports Club account,Income tax department account, KSEB account etc. and also representative persons account like outstanding expenses account, prepaid expenses account, accrued income account,outstanding salary account etc.

Real Account – It includes the accounts of tangible and intangible assets such as, goods account, buildings, furniture, goodwill, patent, copyrights, trade mark account etc.

Nominal Account – These are accounts which record transactions relating to expenses,losses, incomes and gains. These accounts are called nominal accounts, as they exist only in name and cannot be see or touched. It includes expenses accounts like Salaries paid, rent paid, commission paid, bad debts etc. and revenues or incomes like discount received, interest received, commission received, profit and loss account etc.
(**Not a part of syllabus)

Account – An account is a formal record of all transactions relating to changes in a particular item’. It brings together transaction of similar nature at one place in a book called the ledger.
Traditionally ledger account is prepared in “T” format having two equal sides. The left side is called Debit side and the right side is called Credit side. The process of transferring entries recorded in the journal to the ledger is called Posting.  Format of an account
…………… Account

Double entry book keeping – The recording of debit aspect and the credit aspect of a transaction in the books of accounts is called double entry book keeping. In this system every transaction affects at least two accounts or each and every transaction has at least two aspects – a receiving aspect and a giving aspect (debit and credit).
Book keeping here means, keeping the books of accounts in a systematic manner.
Accounting under double entry system is divided into two stages –
1. Preparation of Journal.
2. Preparation of Ledger.

Journal – It is the prime book or book of original entry or book of prime entry in which transactions are recorded in the order in which they occur. It is the book of accounting transaction in a chronological order.

The process of recording transaction in a journal is termed as journalizing and the
transactions entered in the journal are called journal entry. It is also known as the day book because it records daily transactions in the order in which they took place. 

Compound entry – When there are two or more transactions of similar nature occurring on the same day and the entry for the same have more than one debit or credit, it is called compound entry. For example, Salary paid Rs. 2000 and rent paid Rs.1000 on 1-1-2014:
Salary Ac/     Dr     2000
Rent A/c       Dr    1000
To Cash A/c 3       000
(Salary and Rent paid)
Discounts – Discounts are the deduction allowed either on the selling price or on the amount due.
1. Trade Discount – When the goods are purchased in bulk quantities, the seller may give concession in price to the purchases. The concessions so given by the seller to the buyer is called trade discount or quantity discount. The trade discount is deducted from the actual price and the net amount is shown in invoice. Therefore, trade discount will not come in the books of accounts.
2. Cash Discount – It is a deduction granted by the creditor to the debtor as an inducement for making prompt payment. This discount is a loss to the creditor and a gain to the debtor. It will be shown in the books of accounts.
E.g. Cash received from Jayaram Rs.4900 and allowed his discount Rs.100
Cash                    Dr                 4900
Discount allowed   Dr                   100
To Jayaram                                  5000

Banking Transactions

Ledger – A ledger is a collection of accounts. It is the main or principal book of account of a business. It is a book where transactions of similar nature are grouped together in one place in the form of an account. As all the transactions are finally entered in this book, it is also called book of final entry or secondary entry whereas journal is a book original entry.
Classification of ledger accounts – Ledger accounts are put into five categories namely,assets, liabilities, capital, revenues/gains and expenses/losses. All these may further be put into two groups, i.e. permanent accounts and temporary accounts. All permanent accounts are balanced and carried forward to the next accounting period. The temporary accounts are closed at the end of the accounting period by transferring them to the trading and profit and loss account. All permanent accounts appear in the balance sheet. Thus all assets, liabilities
and capital accounts are permanent accounts and all revenues and expense accounts are temporary accounts.
Differences between Journal and ledger 

It is a book of first entry as all transactions are recorded first in the
It is a book of final entry as all transactions are recorded finally in the ledger.
Transactions are recorded in a
chronological order
Transactions are recorded in an analytical
Transactions are recorded on the basis
of source documents
Posting is done on the basis of journal (book of original entry)
Balancing is not doneAll ledger accounts are balanced
The process of recording entries in the
books of original entry is called journalizing
The process of recording entries in the ledger is called posting

Posting – The process of transferring the entries recorded in the journal into appropriate accounts in the ledger is called posting.
Example: Cash Received from Abhijith  Rs.1000
Journal entry:           Cash A/c                        Dr    1000
                          To Abhijith                                  1000
The above entry will be posted to both the cash account and Abhijith account as follows: 

Balancing an account – The process of ascertaining the balance of each and every account in the ledger at the end of accounting period (at the end of each month or any time if required) is called balancing. The difference between the two sides of an account is known as account balance. If the debit side is heavier than the credit side, it shows a debit balance. If the credit side is heavier than the debit side, it means a credit balance.

Opening and Closing balances – While closing the ledger accounts, we can ascertain the balances – either debit or credit balances – at the end of the accounting period. These are known as closing balances. This will be the first item in the next accounting period as the opening balance in that account.
Accounts to be maintained under GST 
· Input CGST a/c – Tax paid on purchase of goods intra-state – treated as asset – advance tax to be set off against Output CGST.
· Output CGST a/c – Tax collected on sale of goods intra-state – treated as liability – payable to Central Govt.
· Input SGST a/c – Tax paid on purchase of goods intra-state – treated as asset – advance tax – to be set off against Output SGST.
· Output SGST a/c – Tax collected on sale of goods intra-state – treated as liability – payable to State Govt.
· Input IGST a/c – Tax paid on purchase of goods inter-state – treated as asset – advance tax to be deducted from Output IGST.
· Output IGST a/c – Tax collected on sale of goods inter-state – treated as liability – payable to Central Govt.
· Electronic Cash Ledger – to be maintained on Government GST portal to pay GST.

Recording of Transactions – I Class 11 Accountancy Exam Questions