Secondary Activities Class 12 Geography Exam Questions

Exam Questions Class 12

Please refer to Secondary Activities Class 12 Geography Exam Questions provided below. These questions and answers for Class 12 Geography have been designed based on the past trend of questions and important topics in your class 12 Geography books. You should go through all Class 12 Geography Important Questions provided by our teachers which will help you to get more marks in upcoming exams.

Class 12 Geography Exam Questions Secondary Activities

Class 12 Geography students should read and understand the important questions and answers provided below for Secondary Activities which will help them to understand all important and difficult topics.

Short Answer Type Questions

Question. What are household industries? Give any three characteristics of these industries.
Answer. Household industries are the smallest and simplest type of industries. In these industries, the artisans with local raw materials and simple tools produce everyday goods.
The characteristics of these industries are
(i) The work in these industries is done at home with the help of family members or with part time labour. They manufacture daily use products.
(ii) There is not much requirement of capital in these industries. There is not much requirement of a transportation system as products are created locally and it has low commercial significance.
(iii) The finished products of this industry may be for local consumption in the same household or village or local markets.

Question. Explain any five characteristics of high-tech industries in the World. 
Answer. The characteristics of high-tech industries are
(i) There is production of advanced scientific and engineering products with the use of intensive Research and Development (R and D).
(ii) The workforce in these industries consists of highly skilled specialist workforce. These are professional workers (white collar workers).
(iii) These industries use robotics, computer aided designs, and other highly advanced technologies.
(iv) These industries are self-sustained and highly specialised.
(v) Sometimes, these industries concentrate regionally to form technopolis e.g. Silicon Valley.

Question. Why are modern manufacturing industries concentrated in few places in the world? Explain any three reasons.
Answer. Modern manufacturing industries are concentrated in a few places in the world because
(i) Raw Material Modern industries require large quantities of raw material. Industries are mainly located near mines, farms and seas. For example, jute mills inWest Bengal, cotton textile in Maharashtra,etc.
(ii) Power Resources The main sources of power are coal, oil and hydro-power that are not evenly distributed. For example, iron and steel industries get coal from Jharia and Raniganj coal-field.
(iii) Means of Transport The modern industries require cheap, developed and quick means of transport. For example, the world’s great industrial region is situated at the end of North Atlantic Ocean route.Great lakes in USA provide cheap transport to the industrial centres.

Question. How does access to market affect the location of industries?
Answer. Access to a market for manufactured goods is the most important factor in the location of industries in the following ways
– Market is a place where there are consumers who have a demand for the manufactured goods as well as purchasing power (ability to purchase).
– People come to market to buy the products needed by them. Whereas manufactures, shopkeepers, etc want to sell their finished goods in exchange of money in the market.
– The size of markets also affects the location of industries. The places which have fewer people, have small size markets. Thus, industries do not prefer to establish their units in such area. On the other hand those, places which are densely populated, have large size regular markets as per the needs and wants of the people. These are the places where industries usually want to prefer to locate their manufacturing units is order to have accers to these markets.

Question. Africa has immense natural resources and yet it is industrially the most backward continent. Comment.
Answer. The reasons for country like Africa for being industrially backward inspite of having immense natural resources are
– Lack of demand and absence of market for manufactured goods.
– Absence or lack of required energy or power sources.
– Poorly developed transportation and communication facilities are equally responsible for the underdeveloped industrial structure.
– Political instability and improper government and regional policies lead to unbalanced economy.
– The African countries do not have the advanced technology, therefore are backward in industrialisation.
– The climate of most of the countries where mineral based industries could be set-up is not favourable.

Question. Explain any five characteristics of ‘large scale manufacturing’ in the world. 
Answer. The characteristics of modern large scale manufacturing industries are
(i) Modern large scale industrial processes consist of multiple complex activities to run the industries.
(ii) The specialised and skilled labour is required in the modern manufacturing industries. Thus, skilled manpower is employed.
(iii) These industries widely use huge power to run the heavy machines in the production process.
(iv) For the quality control, special measures are taken in these type of industries.
(v) Products of large-scale industries are sold in local as well as international markets.

Question. Examine any five characteristics of footloose industries in the world. 
Answer. Footloose industries are those industries that can be located at a wide variety of places and are not dependent on any specific raw material. The characteristics of these type of industries are
(i) These industries require a smaller plant in size as compared to heavy and small industries.
(ii) It needs skilled workers as the industrial process is advanced. The labour force is small and production is in small quantities.
(iii) These are environment-friendly industries and do not create any pollution.
(iv) These industries produce goods that are high in value but smaller in size, so, transport cost is negligible and products are transported by road networks.
(v) They do not require specialised raw materials. The raw material of these industries can be obtained at any place.

Long Answer Type Questions

Question. Explain why high-tech industries in many countries are being attracted to the peripheral areas of major metropolitan centres. 
Answer. High-tech industries in many countries are being attracted to the peripheral areas of major metropolitan centres because
– Periphery of metropolitan areas have open spaces which are neat and clean as compared to core areas. It is suitable for setting up high-tech firms.
– Business parks are planned and developed by the governments at the periphery, which has free spaces as opposed to the congested core areas.
– In the peripheral areas, there is connectivity with the major roads and highways whereas the core is congested with heavy traffic.
– High tech industries are the latest generation of manufacturing industries. These involve the application of intensive research and development for manufacturing scientifically advance and engineered products.
It requires modern set-ups which are neatly spaced having low and dispersed buildings. This can be planned in the peripheral areas as large land is available in peripheral areas of metropolitAnswer.

Question. Discuss the major trends of modern industrial activities especially in the developed countries of the world. 
Answer. The major trends of modern industrial activities especially in the developed countries of the world are
– Modern industrial activities are carried out at a few number of places in developed countries.
– The structure and form of industries change with the progress of economy, scientific and technological advancements. For example, the textile industry in UK witnessed constant growth up to first half of 20th century.
– The industry declined with the shift of the textile industry to less developed countries like India where labour costs are low.
– High-tech industries have been diffusing to less developed countries from more developed countries.For example, in earlier days, Germany developed iron and steel industry by importing iron from Brazil. Now,Brazil might make steel and Germany would import steel and work with these to make engineering products such as cars, computers, etc.
– Other changes that have been observed are that large factories are giving way to smaller units dispersed over large areas and employing several thousands of people.
These regions have become the centres of economic and political power.

Question. Classify the industries on the basis of inputs/raw materials.
Answer. On the basis of inputs or raw materials, industries are classified as
– Agro Based Industries These industries involve the processing of raw materials of the products which are obtained from agricultural farms and fields. The finished products are sold in the rural and urban markets. These industries include food processing, sugar, pickle, fruit juices, spices, textile etc.
– Minerals Based Industry Minerals are used as raw materials in these industries. These include ferrous metallic minerals such as iron and steel industry, non-ferrous metallic minerals such as aluminium, copper,gold etc and non-metallic minerals based industries like cement industry.
– Chemical Based Industry These industries use natural chemical minerals. These include petroleum, salt, sulphur, potash, plastic industries. They also use raw materials obtained from wood and coal.
– Forest Based Industries These industries use major and minor forest products such as wood, timber etc. These include paper industry, furniture industry, lac industry etc.
– Animal Based Industries These industries are based on the products obtained from animals. These include leather industry, woolen, textile industry etc.

Secondary Activities Class 12 Geography Exam Questions

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