Please refer to Social Change and Social Order in Rural and Urban Society Class 11 Sociology Notes and important questions below. The Class 11 Sociology Chapter wise notes have been prepared based on the latest syllabus issued for the current academic year by CBSE. Students should revise these notes and go through important Class 11 Sociology examination questions given below to obtain better marks in exams
Social Change and Social Order in Rural and Urban Society Class 11 Sociology Notes and Questions
The below Class 11 Social Change and Social Order in Rural and Urban Society notes have been designed by expert Sociology teachers. These will help you a lot to understand all the important topics given in your NCERT Class 11 Sociology textbook. Refer to Social Change and Social Order in Rural and Urban Society Notes below which have been designed as per the latest syllabus issued by CBSE and will be very useful for upcoming examinations to help clear your concepts and get better marks in examinations.
Change is the law of nature. All societies undergo changes. Change is the only thing that does not change in society. Constant change is the most permanent features of our society. Social change has to be understood together with social order.
Social change refers to significant changes. These are the changes which alter the structure of society. Social changes include only big changes which transform things fundamentally. Changes have to be both intensive and extensive. They should make big impact over a large sector of society.
Types/kinds of Social Change
1. Evolutionary Changes
2. Revolutionary Changes
3. Structural Changes
4. Change in Values and Beliefs
The change that takes place slowly over a long period is called evolutionary change. Charles Darwin proposed the Theory of Evolution. According to him, all living organism evolve and change slowly over several centuries by adapting themselves to natural circumstances. Darwin’s theory stressed the idea of ‘the survival of the fittest’. Darwin’s theory of evolution describes the natural processes. But it was soon used to evaluate the changes of social world. It was called social Darwinism.
Revolutionary change is an opposition of evolutionary changes. The change that quickly and even suddenly is called ‘revolutionary changes’. Revolutionary change occurs mainly in political context. When ruling class is overthrown by it opponents, the power structure of the society changes creating revolutionary changes. The French Revolution, The Russian Revolution, The Industrial revolution, Telecommunication revolution, etc. are the examples of revolutionary changes.
Structural change refers to transformation in the structure of society. It includes the change in the social institutions and the rules by which these institutions are run. For example,
the emergence of paper money was a structural change in financial markets and transactions, paperless money or electronic economy, etc.
Change in Values and Beliefs
Changes in values and beliefs can also lead to social changes. For example, changes in the ideas and beliefs about children and childhood have brought about important social change. There was a time when the concept of childhood did not exist. Children were considered as small adults. They did not have any consideration of children. For example, the attitude towards child labour.
Causes or Sources of Social Change
There are five broad types of sources or causes of social change:
Environment plays a significant role in shaping societies and bringing social changes. Natural disasters (flood, earthquake, Tsunami, etc.,)can be taken as an example. It often lead to a total transformation or destruction of societies.
Technology and Economy
The combination of technological and economic change leads to social change. Technology helps us to resist, control and adapt to nature in different ways. Technology has created impressive changes in society in combination with the market. The most important social change brought about technological change is the industrial revolution. Sometimes non-technological changes in economic organization can also change society. Plantation agriculture is a well-known historical example.
Political forces have been the most important cause of social change. Change in the existing power system leads to change of the society. For example, The Indian independent movement brought about political change by ending British rule.
Culture refers to the ideas, values and beliefs that shape the life of the people. Changes in ideas and Beliefs naturally lead to change in social life. For example, change in religious beliefs. Max Weber’ s study ‘the Protestant Ethic and Spirit of Capitalism’ showed how the religious beliefs of some protestant sects helped to establish the capitalist social system.
Social order is the tendency within established systems that resists and regulates changes. Every society should maintain its stability in order to stand as a strong and efficient social system. Those who are in a higher position wish to continue the social order and those who are suffering disadvantages are anxious for change.
Social order can be achieved in one of two ways:
1. When people willingly obey rules and norms.
2. When people are compelled to obey such rules and norms. Every society employs a combination of these methods to maintain social order.
Domination, Authority and Law
Domination is the situation in which power became stable and settled, and the parties involved become accustomed to it. Dominant group obtain the cooperation of the people through power. Domination cannot be maintained merely through the use of force. It requires legitimation.
Legitimation refers to the degree of acceptance. Max Weber defines authority as legitimate power. Law plays an important role in maintaining domination and authority. Law is an explicitly codified norm or rule. Law is usually written down. Law is applicable to all citizens.
Social Order and Social Change in Rural Areas
The social structure of villages follows a traditional pattern. The traditional social institutions like caste and religion are stronger in villages. Therefore, change is slower in villages than in towns. The dominant sections are very powerful in rural areas. They control all kinds of employment and resources. The changes in agriculture and agrarian social relations have made deep impact on village societies. Expansion of education, introduction of communication and transportation facilities, Land Reform Act, Green revolution, etc. are the main factors of social change in rural areas.
Social Order and Social Change in Urban Areas
Sociologists have pointed out that urban life and modernity go together. City contains large and dense population.
Anonymity and individuality are main features of modern cities. Lack of sanitation and slums are the main problem are the main problems of cities. Slums are congested and over crowded dwelling places of poor people. Slums are also the breeding grounds of ‘gundas’ and ‘dadas.’ they impose their authority on the people live there. Residential areas in cities all over the world are segregated by class, race, ethnicity and religion.
In India, communal tensions between religious communities results in the conversion of mixed neighbourhoods into single community ones. This is called ‘Ghettoisation.’
The world wide phenomenon of ‘Gated communities’ is also found in Indian cities. Gated communities refers to the creation of affluent neighborhoods that are separated from their surroundings by walls and gates with controlled entry and exit.
Another important problem of the cities related with transport and travelling facilities. Reliance on road transport and private vehicles creates problems of traffic congestion and vehicular pollution. Social changes in many forms and content occur in urban areas.
A related phenomenon is ‘Gentrification’. It refers to the conversion of a previously lower class neighbourhood into a middle and upper class one.