Please refer to The Making of a Global World Class 10 Social Science Exam Questions provided below. These questions and answers for Class 10 Social Science have been designed based on the past trend of questions and important topics in your class 10 Social Science books. You should go through all Class 10 Social Science Important Questions provided by our teachers which will help you to get more marks in upcoming exams.
Class 10 Social Science Exam Questions The Making of a Global World
Class 10 Social Science students should read and understand the important questions and answers provided below for The Making of a Global World which will help them to understand all important and difficult topics.
Objective Type Questions
Question. Until 18th century which two countries were considered the richest in the world?
(a) India and China
(b) China and Japan
(c) England and France
(d) England and Italy
Answer : (a) India and China
Question. AT which of the following states in USA was the United Nations Monetary and Financial Conference held in 1944?
(a) San Francisco
(b) New York
(c) New Hampshire
(d) New Jersey
Answer : (c) New Hampshire
Question. People’s livelihood and local economy of which one of the following was badly affected by the disease named Rinderpest?
(d) South America
Answer : (c) Africa
Question. Which of the following is the direct effect of the Great Depression on Indian trade?
(a) Peasants and farmers suffered
(b) Indian exports and imports nearly halved between 1928-1934
(c) Peasants indebtedness increased
(d) Led to widespread unrest in rural India
Answer : (b) Indian exports and imports nearly halved between 1928-193
Question. Why were the Europeans attracted most to Africa?
(a) by its natural beauty
(b) by the opportunities for investment
(c) For its vast land resources and mineral wealth
(d) For recruitment of labour
Answer : (c) For its vast land resources and mineral wealth
Question. Who adopted the concept of an assembly line to produce automobiles?
(a) Henry Ford
(b) T. Cuppola
(c) V.S. Naipaul
(d) Samuel Morse
Answer : (a) Henry Ford
Question. Which of the following powerful weapons were used by the Spanish conquerors to colonise America during mid-17th century?
(a) Conventional military weapons
(b) Modern military weapons
(c) Biological weapons
(d) Nuclear weapons
Answer : (c) Biological weapons
Very Short Answer Type Questions
Question. Name the two hostile groups of Second World War.
Answer : Axis Powers : Germany, Italy and Japan.
Allied Powers : France, Britain, USSR, USA, China.
Question. What was Rastafarianism ?
Answer : Rastafarianism meant a protest religion that reflected social and cultural connections with Indian emigrants in the Caribbean region.
Question. Which important inventions transformed nineteenth century world ?
Answer : The railways, steamships and the telegraph were the significant inventions that transformed the nineteenth century world.
Question. Why were indentured labourers hired from India and China ?
Answer : In the nineteenth century, thousands of Indians and Chinese labourers were hired to work on plantations,mines, and roads and railways construction projects as indentured labourers.
Question. What were ‘Silk Routes’ ?
Answer : Silk routes were dynamic pre-modern trade and cultural links between distant parts of the world.
Short Answers Type Questions
Question. The silk routes are a good example of trade and cultural link between distant parts of the world. Explain with examples.
Answer : The silk routes were a good examples of trade and cultural link between distant parts of the world, it can be explained as follows :
(i) Historians have identified several silk routes, over land and sea, knitting together vast regions of Asia and linking Asia with Europe and Northern Africa.
(ii) Chinese pottery travelled the same route, as did textile and spices from India.
(iii) Precious metals link gold and silver flowed from Europe to Asia.
(iv) Buddhism emerged from India and spread in several directions through intersecting points on the silk route.
Question. Describe the economic conditions of Britain after the ‘First World War’.
Answer : Britain faced a prolonged crisis after the First World War. (i) While Britain was at war, industries had developed in Japan and India. After the war, Britain found it difficult to recapture its earlier position of dominance in the Indian market, and to compete with Japan internationally. (ii) Britain had borrowed liberally from the US to finance war expenditures. At the end of the war Britain was burdened with huge external debts. (iii) When the war boom ended, production contracted and unemployment increased. In 1921, one out of every five British workers was out of work.
Question. How did Europeans handle the problem of shortage of labour in Africa ?
Answer : The Europeans coped with the growing problem of labour shortage in Africa by following certain steps. These are enumerated as follows :
(i) Africans were burdened with heavy taxes that could be paid only by working for wages on plantations and mines.
(ii) Inheritance laws were revised that led to the displacement of peasants from the land. In principle, only one member of the family was allowed to inherit land. As a matter of fact, other members were shoved into the labour market.
Question. Explain how the global transfer of disease in the pre-modern world helped in the colonisation of the Americas.
Answer : In the pre-modern world, the global transfer of disease led to the colonisation of America because the native of the New World were susceptible to diseases brought about by the colonisers. The Europeans were moderately immune to small pox. Being ostensibly cut-off from the rest of the world, the natives of the New World had no protection against serious diseases. These germs decimated the whole native communities and paved the way for foreign conquests. In principle, weapons and soldiers could easily be destroyed but disease could not be killed with ease.
Question. State three reasons why Europeans fled to America in the 19th century.
Answer : Europeans fled to America in the 19th century because : (i) Until the 19th century, power and hunger were common in Europe.
(ii) Cities were crowded and deadly diseases were widespread.
(iii) Religious conflicts were common and religious dissenters were persecuted.
(iv) Scrapping of Corn Laws, led to inability of British agriculture to compete with imports.
(v) Thousands of people were left unemployed due to agricultural land lying uncultivated. So, people migrated in thousands, crossed oceans to find employment and a better future
(vi) In America, plantations were growing cotton and sugar for the European market. These plantations were worked on by slaves.
Question. “The relocation of industry to low-wage countries stimulated world trade and capital flows.” Justify the statement.
Why did MNCs begin to shift their production centres to Asian countries? What were its effects?
Write a note to explain the effects of the decision of MNCs to relocate production to Asian countries.
Answer : (i) MNCs shifted their production units to Asian countries because of cheap labour and low wages.
(ii) Availability of raw materials and a large market.
(iii) Effects: It stimulated world trade and the flow of capital. Countries like India, China and Brazil underwent a rapid economic transformation.
It generated employment opportunities and introduced competition in the domestic markets.
Question. How did Rinderpest become instrumental in subjugating the Africans?
Describe the impact of ‘Rinderpest’ on people’s livelihoods and local economy in Africa in 1890s?
Write a note to explain the effects of the coming of rinderpest to Africa.
Answer : Impact of Rinderpest:
(i) Rinderpest killed 90% of cattle in Africa.
(ii) The loss of cattle destroyed African livelihood.
(iii) Planters, mine owners and colonial government successfully monopolized what scarce cattle resources remained.
(iv) Forced Africans into labour market.
(v) Control over the cattle resources enabled European colonisers to conquer and subdue Africa.
Question. Describe the effects of abolishing the ‘Corn Laws’.
Explain three far reaching effects of the abolition of the Corn Laws.
Answer : (i) Britain began to import food grains from the rest of the world. British agriculture was unable to compete with imports.
(ii) Vast areas of land were now left uncultivated.
(iii) Thousands of men and women were thrown out of work. They started migrating to cities.
(iv) Food prices fell and consumption in Britain rose.
(v) Other countries: Russia, America and Australia sent food grains to meet British demand.
(vi) They required railways to link the ports.
Question. “Food offers many examples of long distance cultural exchange.” Justify this statement.
In what ways did food items offer scope for long distance cultural exchange? Explain.
Answer : (i) Traders and travellers introduced new crops to the lands they travelled.
(ii) It is believed that noodles travelled west from China to become spaghetti.
(iii) Arabs traders took pasta to Sicily, an island now in Italy in 5th century.
(iv) Many of our common foods such as potatoes, soya, groundnut, maize, tomatoes, chillies, sweet potatoes and so on were not known to our ancestors.
Question. Explain the three types of flows within inter-national economy in exchanges.
Mention the three types of flows within inter-national economic exchanges during the 19th century.
Answer : (i) Flow of Trade : Trade flow of goods, e.g. cloth or wheat, in which goods are exchanged at long and short distances. For example, Indian weavers produced fine quality cotton cloth and exported it to European countries. But post industrial revolution due to tariff barriers this changed drastically.
(ii) Flow of Labour : The migration of people in search of employment is called ‘Flow of Labour’. Nearly 50 million people emigrated from Europe to America and Australia in the 19th century. All over the world, some 150 million people are estimated to have left their homes, crossed oceans and vast distances over land in search of a better future.
(iii) Flow of capital Investment: for short-term or long-term investment. In this, movement of resources from one country to another takes place through loans or business investments. The British transferred a lot of capital from India to England before independence.
All three are closely associated and affected the lives of people in the nineteenth century.
Question. What were the ‘Corn Laws’? How was it abolished?
What were the Corn Laws? Why were the Corn Laws abolished? What was the result of the abolishing the Laws?
Answer : (i) The laws allowing the British Government to restrict the import of corn is known as the “Corn Laws”.
(ii) These laws were abolished because of the industrialists and urban dwellers were unhappy with high food prices; as a result of which they forced the abolition of the Corn Laws.
Result : Food could be imported into Britain at a much cheaper rate. The immediate effect of the British Government’s decision to abolish the Corn Laws was the inflow of cheaper agricultural crops from the Americas and Australia. Many English farmers left their profession and migrated to towns and cities.
Question. Explain the three impacts of the First World War on the British economy.
Explain the impact of the First World War on the British economy.
Describe the economic conditions of Britain after the ‘First World War’.
Answer : Economic conditions of Britain after the First World War:
After the First World War, Britain found difficult to recapture its earlier position. Britain was burdened with huge external debts. The war had led to an economic boom, a large increase in demand, production and employment. When the war boom ended, production contracted and unemployment increased. At the same time, the government reduced bloated war expenditures to bring them into line with peace time revenues. These debts led to huge job losses. Many agricultural economists were also in crisis.
Question. Mention three reasons for the creation of International Monetary Fund and the World Bank.
Answer : (i) The International Monetary Fund and the World Bank were created to meet the financial needs of the industrial countries.
(ii) When Japan and Europe rapidly rebuilt economies, they became less dependent on the IMF and the World Bank.
(iii) Thus, from the late 1950s the Bretton Woods institutions, World Bank and IMF, began to turn their attention towards newly developing countries.
(iv) The newly independent countries facing problems of poverty came under the guidance of international agencies dominated by the former colonial powers.
Question. Why did most of the developing countries organise themselves as a group – the Group of 77 (G-77)?
Answer : (i) The developing countries came under the guidance of IMF and World Bank which were dominated by the former colonial powers in order to uplift their economies.
(ii) Former colonial powers exploited the natural resources of developing nations through IMF and World Bank.
(iii) The developing nations organised themselves into G- 77 so as to gain real control over their natural resources, to get more development assistance and fairer prices for raw materials.
(iv) They also wanted a better opportunity for their manufactured goods in the markets of developing nations.
Question. The First World War was a war like no other before. Explain any three features about the war that supports the statement.
Answer : (i) It involved the world’s leading industrial nations.
(ii) This war was the first modern industrial war. Machine guns, tanks, aircraft, chemical weapons, were used on a massive scale.
(iii) Most of those who were maimed were men of working age. The scale of death and destruction was great. These deaths and injuries reduced the workforce.
(iv) Industries during the war were restructured to produce war- related products.
(v) The war led to the snapping of economic links between the world’s largest economic powers which were now fighting with each other to pay for them. The war transformed the US from being an international debtor to an international creditor.
Question. Give three examples to show that the pre-modern world changed with the discovery of new sea routes to America.
Answer : Three examples are as follows :
(i) Many common foods, e.g., potatoes, soya, tomatoes, maize, etc., were introduced to Europe from America. These crops made a difference between life and death. The poor began to eat better and live longer in England with the introduction of potatoes.
(ii) Religious dissenters from Europe fled due to the fear of persecution in Europe and migrated to America.
(iii) Slave trade was started. European traders captured slaves in Africa and took them to America where they worked on plantations. Europe became the centre of the world trade.
(iv) Precious metals, e.g., silver from mines located in present day Peru and Mexico also enhanced Europe’s wealth and financed its trade.
Question. “The multinational companies (MNCs) choose China as an alternative location for investment?” Explain the statement.
Answer : (i) Since the revolution in 1949, China gradually came in the field of world economy. It attracted the foreign MNCs because of its lowest economic structure.
(ii) Wages were relatively low.
(iii) China has the largest population besides labour. They also formed a large consumer base.
Question. Explain the role of New International Economic Order (NIEO).
Answer : The Group of 77 or G-77 demanded a New International Economic Order (NIEO).
By the NIEO they meant a System that would give them :
(i) Actual control over their natural resources.
(ii) More development assistance.
(iii) Fairer prices for their raw materials.
(iv) Better access for their manufactured goods in developed countries’ markets.
Question. Explain the effect of the death of men of working age in Europe because of the First World War?
Write a note to explain The death of men of working age in Europe because of the World War .
Answer : (i) Majority of the people killed in the First World War were the men of working age. It reduced able bodied workforce in Europe.
(ii) With fewer members within the family, household incomes declined.
(iii) Women stepped in to undertake jobs that earlier only men were expected to do.
Question. What was the impact of colonisation on various colonies ?
Answer : The effects of colonisation on various colonies are enumerated as follows :
(i) Trade flourished and markets expanded in the latenineteenth century. At the same time, colonisation also led to loss of freedom and livelihoods in the colonies.
(ii) European conquests led to economic, social and ecological changes which resulted in the positioning of the colonised societies within the ambit of the world economy.
(iii) Rival European powers in Africa drew up the borders demarcating their respective territories, which is known as paper partition.
(iv) Britain and France wielded control over vast stretches of land in the overseas territories in the late-nineteenth century. Belgium and Germany became new colonial powers.
(v) The US also became a colonial power in the late 1890s by exercising control over some colonies that were previously occupied by Spain.
Long Answer Type Questions
Question. What were the results of ‘shrinking’ of the world from sixteenth century onwards ?
Answer : The ‘shrinking’ of the world from sixteenth century onwards, culminated in many developments. The results are as follows :
(i) The Americas (North, South America and Caribbean Islands) came into the purview of public consciousness.
(ii) The supreme European powers, armed with advanced weapons, colonised the vast swathes of the American landmass.
(iii) The European sailors, mainly Spanish and Portuguese, invented sea trade routes through the Indian Ocean. This led to expansion and re-directing of trade to Europe.
(iv) China, ostensibly cut-off from the whole world, did not forge any commercial contacts with the European powers. As a matter of fact, the center of gravity got drifted from China towards Europe.
(v) The gold and silver mines of South American countries, like Peru and Mexico got exposed to the European powers.
(vi) Smallpox, a pernicious disease, was transmitted into the American continents through European soldiers.
Question. Describe the role of ‘technology‘ in transformation of the world in the nineteenth century.
Answer : The making of modern global world was characterized by major discoveries and inventions. Technological inventions helped developing in these ways :
(i) Railways, steamships, telegraphs transformed the trade and led to easy transportation of goods and raw materials.
(ii) Technological advancements stimulated the process of industrialization, which expanded production of goods and trade.
(iii) Refrigerated ships made transportation of perishable products, like meat, over long distances easy.
(iv) There was also development of the Printing Press that lead to print revolution.
(v) Communication was made easy with the invention of telephones, computers and other things like cable, network towers etc.
Question. Explain the destruction caused during the Second World War. Mention two crucial influences which shaped post-war reconstruction.
Answer : (i) Unlike earlier wars, most of the deaths took place outside the battlefields.
(ii) More civilians than soldiers died from war.
(iii) Vast parts of Asia and Europe were devastated.
(iv) Cities were destroyed.
(v) There was immense amount of economic devastation.
Two crucial influences :
First : U.S’s emergence as military power in the western world.
Second : Dominance of the Soviet Union.
Question. What was Rinderpest? How did it adversely affect the lives and fortunes of the Africans?
What was Rinderpest? How did Rinderpest change the economy of the African Society?
Describe briefly the effects of Rinderpest in Africa in the 1890s.
Answer : Rinderpest arrived in Africa in the late 1880s. Within two years, it spread in the whole continent. It affected the Africans in the following ways:
(i) Rinderpest moved like forest fire in Africa.
(ii) 90% of cattle were killed.
(iii) The loss of cattle destroyed African livelihoods. Earlier people rarely worked for a wage. They possessed land and livestock. Due to Rinderpest, they were forced to work for wages and so it affected the economy.
(iv) Colonial government forced the Africans into labour market.
Question. Explain any five factors that led to the Great Depression of 1929.
What do you know about the Great Depression? Write any two causes of it.
Answer : The Great Depression began around 1929 and lasted till the mid 1930s. During this period, most parts of the world experienced decline in production, employment, incomes and trade. Agricultural regions and communities were the most affected.
Causes of Great Depression:
(i) Post-world war economy of the world was fragile. Agricultural over production was a problem. As prices slumped, farm produce rotted.
(ii) Many countries financed loans from the US
(iii) US overseas lenders panicked at the sign of financial crisis.
(iv) Thus, banks were bankrupt and were forced to close down in Europe and in the US because they were unable to recover investments, collect loans and repay depositors.
(v) American capitalists stopped all loans.
Question. Describe the social and economic effects of the World War on England and USA.
Answer : Social Effects :
(i) Most of the killed and maimed people were of the working age and this affected the work force in England.
(ii) Household income declined and women stepped in to take up jobs.
(iii) Role and position of women changed forever in England.
Economic Effects :
(i) Economic links between some of the major economic powers of the world were snapped.
(ii) England borrowed large sums of money from the US Banks.
(iii) USA emerged as an international creditor.
(iv) USA owned more assets in foreign countries than foreign countries owned in the USA.
Question. Critically examine the expansion of trade facilities in the 19th century.
Answer : Expansion of trade facilities in the 19th century :
(i) In many parts of the world, these developments meant loss of freedom and livelihoods.
(ii) Late 19th century Europeans conquest brought about many destructive economic, social and ecological changes in the colonies.
(iii) In Africa, in the 1890s, a fast spreading disease of cattle plague or Rinderpest had a terrifying impact on people’s livelihoods and the local economy.
(iv) The example of indentured labour migration.
(v) Great misery and poverty for others.
(vi) New forms of coercion in Asia and Africa.
Question. Why have the historians described the 19th century indenture as new system of slavery? Explain five reasons.
Answer : Indentured labour was described as a new system of slavery because :
(i) Agents tempted the poor people by giving false information about the nature of work, living and working conditions, final destinations modes of travel, etc.
(ii) Less willing workers were at time forcibly abducted by the agents.
(iii) On the plantation, the working conditions were harsh and they had a few legal rights.
(iv) They were beaten or imprisoned for not being able to meet tasks that used to be very heavy or for running away from the job.
(v) Normal medical attention was given to them and wages were deducted in case of absence at work or failure to fulfil the task.
Question. What is the meaning of ‘cultural fusion’? Give two examples how indentured labour system led to cultural fusion.
“The indentured labour gave rise to a new culture in the Caribbean islands.” Justify this statement with suitable examples.
Answer : (i) Cultural fusion is a phenomenon which emerges when two or more cultures intermingle and produce a new culture.
(ii) Indentured labourers used to live and work in very harsh conditions. This forced them to seek new avenues of comfort and relaxations. This blended different cultural forms.
(a) Hosay: In Trinidad, the annual Muharram procession was transformed into a riotous carnival called ‘Hosay’ in which workers of all races and religions joined.
(b) Chutney Music: ‘Chutney music’ is another creative contemporary expression of the post indentured experience.
(c) Rastafarianism: The protest religion of ‘Rastafarianism’ is also said to reflect social and cultural links with Indian migrants to the Caribbean.
Question. “Trade and cultural exchange always went hand in hand”. Explain the statement in the light of silk route.
Answer : (i) The silk routes is a good example of vibrant pre- modern trade and cultural links between distant parts of the world.
(ii) The name ‘silk routes’ points to the importance of west-bound Chinese silk cargoes along this route.
(iii) Precious metals—gold and silver, etc., flowed from Europe to Asia. Chinese potteries, textiles from China and spices from India were traded.
(iv) Various food items offer very good examples of long distance cultural exchanges.
(v) Christian missionaries, Muslim preachers and Buddhist monks travelled through this route.
Question. After 19th century, how did the indentured labourers discover their own ways of survival? Explain.
Answer : (i) Initially the indentured labourers found it difficult to adjust to the harsh living conditions of the plantation. But very soon they discovered new ways of survival.
(ii) They developed new forms of individual and collective self expression, blended art, cultural forms, old and new.
(iii) In Trinidad the cultural Muharram procession was transformed into a riotous carnival called ‘Hosay’ in which workers of all races and religions joined.
(iv) The protest religion ‘Rastafarianism’ is also said to reflect social and cultural links with Indian migrates to Caribbean.
(v) Chutney music popular in Trinidad and Guyana is another creative expression of the post indenture experience.
Question. Do you think World War-II marked a watershed in the twentieth century ?
Answer : The Second World War started two decades after the end of the First World War. It was fought between the Axis Powers (mainly Nazi Germany, Japan and Italy) and the Allied Powers (Britain, France, the Soviet Union and the USA.) The Second World War had set another paradigm as it was another instance of ‘industrial war’. The World War-II, doubtlessly, marked a watershed in the twentieth century history of International Relations. It was a catastrophe in human history and all major powers were driven into the whirlpool of the global war. It was a total war like the World War-I, which left both the teams with lasting wounds. The World War-II was fought on a much wider scale and was relatively more violent than the World War-I. The World War-II had set the embryonic stage of the ‘atom bomb‘ culture. The World War-II had greatly upset the balance of power in the world. There was a huge outcry for peace, freedom and domocracy. The world in a state of turbulence as this Great War began a new cold war between USA and USSR. The armed strength of USA was reflected in the World War-II. Thus, the main tussle originated from the World War-II and the world was set in a heated cauldron. The diplomatic equations underwent changes as the world got involved in new forms of battles. Hence, this war marked a watershed in the history.