Please refer to The Rise of Nationalism in Europe Class 10 Social Science Exam Questions provided below. These questions and answers for Class 10 Social Science have been designed based on the past trend of questions and important topics in your class 10 Social Science books. You should go through all Class 10 Social Science Important Questions provided by our teachers which will help you to get more marks in upcoming exams.
Class 10 Social Science Exam Questions The Rise of Nationalism in Europe
Class 10 Social Science students should read and understand the important questions and answers provided below for The Rise of Nationalism in Europe which will help them to understand all important and difficult topics.
Very Short Answer Type Questions
Question. What was the main aim to Treaty of Vienna 1815 ?
Answer : The main aim of Treaty of Vienna of 1815 was undoing most of the changes that had come about in Europe during the Napoleonic wars.
Question. Interpret the concept of ‘liberalisation‘ in the field of economic sphere during the nineteenth century in Europe.
Answer : In the economic sphere, ‘liberalisation’ stood for the freedom of markets and the abolition of stateimposed restrictions on the movement of goods and capital. Duties were levied according to the weight or measurement of the goods which were different for different states. Liberalisation meant reduction of custom duties and removal of these quotas.
Question. To which country did the artist Frederic Sorrieu belong?
Answer : The artist Frederic Sorrieu belonged to France.
Question. What does the term ‘absolutist’ imply ?
Answer : The term ‘absolutist’ implies a type of monarchical government that has centralised, autocratic and militarised apparatus.
Question. Why were merchants from town of Europe begins to move countryside In seventeenth and eighteenth centuries ?
Answer : Due to the influence of trade guilds merchant couldn’t expand production in towns. Countryside supplying a small producers artisans peasants with order to produce for internotional market.
Question. Correct the following statement and rewrite. Chief minister Cavour who led the movement to unify the regions of Germany was neither a revolutionary nor a democrat.
Answer : Chief minister Cavour who led the movement to unify the regions of Italy was neither a revolutionary nor a democrat.
Question. Correct statement and rewrite the following :
Three wars over seven years with Austria, Denmark and Italy ended in Prussian Victory.
Answer : Three wars over seven years with Austria, Denmark and France ended in Prussian Victory.
Question. Who remarked, “When France sneezes the rest of Europe catches a cold”?
Answer : Metternich remarked, “When France sneezes the rest of Europe catches a cold”.
Question. Who was called ‘the most dangerous enemy of our social order’ ?
Answer : Giuseppe Mazzini was called ‘the most dangerous enemy of our social order’ by Austrian Chancellor Duke Metternich.
Question. What were some of the strong demands of the emerging middle classes in Europe during the nineteenth century?
Answer : Two of the strong demands of the emerging middle classes in Europe were:
i. The freedom and perfect competitiveness in markets.
ii. The abolition of the state-imposed restructures on the movement of capital and goods.
Question. Name the Balkan countries.
Answer : The Balkan nations comprise Bulgaria, Romania, Albania, Macedonia, Greece, Bosnia-Herzegovina, Slovenia, Croatia, Montenegro and Serbia which are inhabited mostly by the slaves.
Question. Who implemented the Civil Code of 1804 in France?
Answer : The Civil Code of 1804 was implemented by Napoleon Bonaparte in France.
Question. When was the Frankfurt parliament held?
Answer : Frankfurt parliament was held in 1848.
Question. Which state led the Unification of Germany ?
Answer : Prussia led the Unification of Germany.
Question. What is the significance of Civil Code of 1804 of France ?
Answer : The significance of Civil Code of 1804 was to abolish privileged status based on birth.
Question. Which secret society was attended by Giuseppe Mazzini ?
Answer : Giuseppe Mazzini became a member of the secret society of Carbonari.
Question. What is an ‘allegory’ ?
Answer : Allegory manifests abstract ideas (greed, freedom,envy and liberty) through a person or thing.
Short Answer Type Questions
Question. “Napoleon had destroyed democracy in France but in the administrative field he had incorporated revolutionary principles in order to make the whole system more rational and efficient”. Analyse the statement with arguments.
Answer : (i) The Civil Code of 1804 was also known as Napoleonic Code that permeated the countries, including Switzerland, Italy and Germany.
(ii) Napoleon simplified administrative divisions and subsequently, abolished feudalism. He emancipated the peasants and other segments of the society from serfdom and manorial dues.
(iii) Transport and communication network was improved. Businessmen, peasants, artisans experienced freedom that was gained due to Napoleon’s unified laws, standardised measures
and common currency, leading to the facilitation of the movement of goods from one region to another.
Question. What is the definition of Feudalism ?
Answer : Feudalism was the principal social system prevailing in medieval Europe. In this system, the nobility exercised lands from the Crown in lieu of military service. The
feudal lords dominated the lower segments of the society, mainly vassals and the serfs. Serfs cultivated the lands of the feudal lords and paid homage and a part of the produce to the feudal lords in return for military protection.
Question. Describe the cause of the Silesian weaver’s uprising.
Comment on the viewpoint of the journalist Wilhelm Wolff.
Answer : The perspective of the journalist Wilhelm Wolff were :
(i) The main reason behind the Silesian weaver’s uprising was lower payment for the accomplishment of job.
(ii) Contractor who manufactured raw materials and procured finished textiles from the weavers paid less money for the service of the weavers.
(iii) The weavers were tortured mercilessly if they asked for their dues. This resulted in logical agitation and uprising by the weavers against the contractor.
(iv) The perspective of the journalist wilhelm wolff, was that the hardship of the workers was colossus and the contractor made their lives infernal. In this context, the viewpoint of journalist was apposite and logical.
Question. Read the sources given below and answer the questions that follow :
Source A-The Making of Nationalism in Europe What we know today as Germany, Italy and Switzerland were divided into kingdoms, duchies and cantons whose rulers had their autonomous territories. Eastern and Central Europe were under autocratic monarchies within the territories of which lived diverse peoples.
They did not see themselves as sharing a collective identity or a common culture. Often, they even spoke different languages and belonged to different ethnic groups. The Habsburg Empire that ruled over Austria- Hungary, for example, was a patchwork of many different regions and peoples.
Source B-Italy Unified
During the 1830s, Giuseppe Mazzini had sought to put together a coherent programme for a unitary Italian Republic. He had also formed a secret society called Young Italy for the dissemination of his goals.
The failure of revolutionary uprisings both in 1831 and 1848 meant that the mantle now fell on Sardinia-
Piedmont under its ruler King Victor Emmanuel II to unify the Italian states through war. In the eyes of the ruling elites of this region, a unified Italy offered them the possibility of economic development and political dominance.
Source C- The Strange Case of Britain There was no British nation prior to the eighteenth century. The primary identities of the people who inhabited the British Isles were ethnic ones – such as English, Welsh, Scot or Irish. All of these ethnic groups had their own cultural and political traditions. But as the English nation steadily grew in wealth, importance and power, it was able to extend its influence over the other nations of the islands.
Question. What bind the diverse ethnic groups in Europe before the eighteenth century?
Answer : The only tie binding the diverse groups together was a common allegiance to the emperor.
Source B-Italy Unified
Question. Into how many states Italy was divided before its unification?
Answer. Before its unification, Italy was divided into seven states.
Source C- The Strange Case of Britain
Question. In which year did the Act of Union come into effect?
Answer : The Act of Union came into effect in 1707 between England and Scotland that resulted in the formation of the ‘United Kingdom of Great Britain’.
Question. How had Napoleonic Code exported to the regions under French control? Explain with examples.
Answer : Napoleonic Code :
(i) It did away all privileges based on birth.
(ii) It established equality before the law.
(iii) It secured the right to property.
(iv) Abolished feudal dues.
Through a return to monarchy, Napoleon had, no doubt, destroyed democracy in France, but in the administrative field he had incorporated revolutionary principles in order to make the whole system more rational and efficient. In the Dutch Republic,Switzerland, Italy and Germany, Napoleon simplified administrative divisions, abolished the feudal system and freed peasants from serfdom and manorial dues. In the towns too, guild restrictions were removed.
Transport and communication systems were improved.
Peasants, artisans, workers and new businessmen enjoyed a new-found freedom. Businessmen and smallscale producers of goods, in particular, began to realise that uniform laws, standardised weights and measures,and a common national currency would facilitate the movement and exchange of goods and capital from one region to another.
Question. What was the reason for the rejection of Frankfurt Parliament by the Wilhelm IV, king of Prussia?
Answer : The assembly which was convened at Frankfurt by political associations, middle-class professionals and businessmen drafted a constitution in 1848. The reason for the rejection was that the members drafted a Constitution for the German nation which was to be headed by a monarchy subject to a Parliament.
Question. How did the Balkan issue become one of the major factors responsible for the First World War?
Answer : The Balkan issue became one of the major factors responsible for the First World War in the following ways:
i. Balkans was a region of geographical and ethical variations comprising modern day Romania, Bulgaria, Albania, Greece, Macedonia, Croatia, Bosnia, Herzegovina, Slovenia, Serbia and Montenegro whose inhabitants were known as slaves.
ii. A large part of the Balkans was under the control of the Ottoman Empire. The spread of the ideas of romantic nationalism in the Balkan together with the disintegration of the Ottoman Empire made this region very explosive.
iii. As the different Slavic nationalities struggled to define their identity and independence, the Balkan area became as area of intense conflict.
iv. The Balkan states were jealous of each other and each hoped to gain more territory at the expense of other. Balkans also became as area of big power rivalry.
v. Each European power such as Russia, Germany, England, Austria-Hungry was keen on countering the hold of other powers over Balkans and this led to a series of wars, eventually the First World War.
Question. List any three features of the Civil Code of 1804 usually known as the Napoleonic Code.
Answer : Napoleon incorporated revolutionary principles in the administrative field to make the whole system more rational and effective. His civil code of 1804 was known as Napoleonic Code.
i. It did away with all the privileges based on birth.
ii. It established equality before the law and secured the right to property.
iii. It simplified administrative divisions and abolished feudal system. It freed peasants from serfdom and manorial duties.
iv. Peasants, artisans, workers and new businessmen found new-found freedom as guild restrictions were removed in towns also.
Question. Explain the three features of the class of landed aristocracy of Europe.
Answer : During the mid-eighteenth century, a landed aristocracy was dominant class in Europe both politically and socially.
i. The members of this landed aristocracy were united by a common way of life that cut across regional division.
ii. They owned huge properties both in rural and urban areas.
iii. Their families were tied together by matrimonial relations and they wielded much power in their respective countries.
Question. Describe the steps taken by French revolutionaries to create a sense of collective identity among the French people?
Answer : The steps are taken to create a sense of collective identity amongst French people by the French revolutionaries included:
i. The ideas of fatherland (la patrie) and citizen (le citoyen) were spread to bring the notion of a united community having equal rights and protected by a constitution.
ii. A new flag was chosen of tricolour to represent the nation and the royal standard was removed.
iii. New hymns, oaths and martyrs commemorated in the name of the nation.
iv. The Estates General became the National Assembly and its members were elected by a body of active citizens.
v. Uniform system of weights, measures were adopted and the abolition of internal customs.
vi. Promoting French as a common language of the nation.
Question. Explain any three ways in which nationalist feelings were kept alive in Poland in the eighteenth and nineteenth century.
Answer : The nationalist feelings were kept alive in Poland in the eighteenth and nineteenth century in the following ways:
i. They used music to keep their unity and identity. Karol Kurpinski, kept up the national struggle by staging his polish operas and music.
ii. The Polish people used dances like polonaise and mazurka making them into nationalist symbols.
iii. The use of Polish came to be seen as a symbol of struggle against Russian dominance. In 1831, there was a Polish armed rebellion against Russian rule but the rebellion was crushed.
Question. Identify Napoleon, telling the part played by him in the France.
Answer : Napoleon was a great French General, who won many battles for the revolutionary France and raised his nation’s prestige. In many parts of Europe, like in the Dutch Republic in Switzerland, Italy and Germany, he simplified administrative divisions, abolished the feudal system and freed peasants from the serfdom and the manorial dues.
There was a time when he had become a terror for all the European monarchs. But in the end, his limited resources collapsed in the face of fourth coalition of the European nations. He was defeated in the battle of Waterloo in 1815 A.D. and was sent as a prisoner to spend his last days at the small island of St. Helena where he died in the year 1821 A.D.
Question. Which conditions were viewed as obstacles to economic exchange and growth by the new commercial classes during the nineteenth century Europe?
Answer : Following were the obstacles viewed by the new commercial classes, to the economic exchange and growth during the nineteenth century Europe:
i. There was enormous increase in population all over the Europe.
ii. Population from rural areas migrated to the cities to live in overcrowded slums and could not afford to fulfill the basic needs.
iii. Increase in unemployment. In most countries, there were more job-seekers than employment.
iv. Cheap machine-made goods from England were giving stiff competition to small producers of European towns.
v. The price of food inflated many folds due to bad harvest. It led to a widespread pauperism in European towns.
Question. Why were the years of 1830’s of great hardship in Europe? Explain any five reasons.
Answer : The decade of 1830 had brought great economic hardship or crisis in Europe due to the following reasons:
i. The first half of the nineteenth century saw an increase in population, all over Europe. There was a scarcity of jobs and few employment opportunities ii. Migration of rural people to the cities further made the situation worse.
iii. Small scale producers in towns sometimes faced with stiff competition from rural areas where production was carried out mainly in homes or small workshops.
These products imported from rural areas were obviously cheaper than townmade products.
iv. In those parts of Europe where aristocracy was strong and enjoyed enormous powers, the peasants groaned under the burden of feudal dues and taxation.
v. Due to population, the demand for food increased. It led to rise in food prices. This increased price along with a year of bond harvests led to widespread pauperism in towns and country.
Question. How Europe was closely allied to the ideology of liberalism?
Answer : 11. In Europe the educated, liberal middle class spearheaded the nationalist movement.
They stood for the freedom of individual and equality of all before the low. Following were the political, social and economic ideas supported by the liberals:
i. Political ideas –The ideology of liberalism supported the ideas of national unity and abolition of aristocratic privileges. It also advocated for a constitutional and representative government through parliament. It did not stand for the idea of universal suffrage.
ii. Social ideas – They supported freedom for the individual and idea of equality of all before the law.
iii. Economic ideas – There was freedom of market and abolition of state imposed restrictions on the movement of goods and capital. Zollverein abolished tariff barriers and reduced the number of currencies. Introduction of a system of weights and measures also strengthen the ideology of liberalism.
Long Answer Type Questions
Question. Critically examine the achievements and failures of Napoleon.
Answer : The achievements of Napoleon are enumerated as follows :
(i) Napoleon introduced substantial reforms in the conquered territories.
(ii) He is deemed to have decimated democracy in France. Nevertheless, he incorporated many revolutionary principles in the administrative domain. He did this to make the administrative system more effective and rational.
(iii) The civil code of 1804, also known as the Napoleonic code, abolished all the privileges based on birth, set-up equality before the law and reserved the rights to property.
(iv) In Dutch Republic, in Italy, Switzerland and Germany, Napoleon simplified administrative divisions, abolished the feudal system, emancipated peasants from bondage and serfdom, removed restrictions on guild and relaxed manorial dues.
(v) He improved transport and communication system throughout the country. All these substantial reforms and developments facilitated the movement and swap of goods or services from one region to another. Some of the failures of Napoleon are as follows :
(i) The people in the annexed territories realised the graveness of the situation. They comprehended that the new political dispositions could not go hand in hand with the political freedom.
(ii) Enhanced taxation, censorship, forced conscription into the French armies required to conquer the rest of Europe. All these regressive programmes began to outweigh the administrative changes brought about by Napoleon and caused resentment among people.
Question. Explain the nation building process of Germany after 1848.
Answer : In 1848, the middle-class Germans tried to unite the different regions of the German confederation into a nation-state under an elected parliament. This initiative was however, suppressed by the combined forces of the monarchy and the military, supported by the large landowners of Prussia.
(i) Prussia carried forward the movement for national unification. Otto von Bismarck, its chief minister, was the architect of this process and carried out the task with help of Prussian army and bureaucracy.
(ii) After fighting three wars over seven years with the combined forces of Austria, Denmark and France, Prussia emerged victorious and the process of unification was completed. (iii) On 18 January, 1871 the Prussian King, William I, was proclaimed German Emperor in a ceremony held at Hall of Mirrors in the Palace of Versailles.
(iv) The new German state focused on modernising the currency, banking, legal and judicial systems.
Question. Describe the explosive conditions prevailed in the Balkans after 1871 in Europe.
Answer : Introduction : towords the late 19th century in nationalism aligned with imperialism and became a narrow creed this was evident in Balkah a reason of a Europe after 1871.(a) balak was the reason in including the present day Bulgaria haxze govina greese. this rezion season was under the control of Ottoman Empire.
(b) this rezion become an area of intense conflicts due to the breakdown Ottoman Empire along with the spread of a romantic nationalism.
(c) one by one each of the European subject nationalities broke away. They base their area on history that they were was independant and then subjected to colonial power.
(d) Each try to occupy the reason and get independent at the expense of other. At the same time the European power camp to the scene.
(e) nationalism aligned with the imperialism when austra – Hungairy Germany and britain tried to occupy that directory and countering the influence of other.