The Sermon at Benares Summary Class 10

Notes for Class 10

Students should read the The Sermon at Benares Summary Class 10 English provided below prepared based on the NCERT Book for Class 10 English. In the summary, the teacher has provided the gist of the lesson. The students will be able to understand the entire chapter easily. Students should go through all Class 10 English Chapter Summary provided by us on our website.

Class 10 English The Sermon at Benares Summary

Sermon is a religious talk delivered by a prophet or Saint. Here we have the journey of Gautam Buddha from prince hood to his saintly life. He left the palace at the age of 25, after seeing the sufferings of the world, to seek enlightenment. He wandered for seven years, here and there, and under a peepal tree at Bodhgaya he got it. His first sermon was delivered at Benaras as it was considered to be the holiest place because of the river Ganga. He thinks that he who seeks peace should draw out the arrow of lamentation, complaint and grief. He who has drawn out the arrow has become composed, and will obtain peace of mind; he who has overcome all such circumstances will be free from sorrow and be blessed. Kisa Gautami was grieving over the death of her son. She moved from door to door and at last came to Buddha. She made him a humble request to make her son alive. Buddha said he would do but he asked a handful of mustard seeds. He further commanded it must be taken from a house where no one had lost a child, husband, parent or friend. She went from house to house but was unable to find one where nobody had died. She was tired and hopeless and sat down at the wayside watching the light of the city as they flickered up. And she realised that these lives flicker up for some time and are extinguished again. This way she was taught that the lives of mortals in this world are troubled and brief and there is no means by which one can avoid deaths. As all earthen vessels made by the potter are being broken, so is the life of mortals. Death is inevitable.

Summary in Hindi

उपदेश एक पैगंबर या संत द्वारा दिया गया धार्मिक भाषण है। यहां हमारे पास राजकुमार हुड से उनके संत जीवन तक गौतम बुद्ध की यात्रा है। उन्होंने दुनिया के कष्टों को देखकर ज्ञान प्राप्त करने के लिए 25 वर्ष की आयु में महल छोड़ दिया। वह सात साल तक इधर-उधर भटकता रहा और बोधगया में एक पीपल के पेड़ के नीचे उसे मिल गया। उनका पहला उपदेश बनारस में दिया गया था क्योंकि इसे गंगा नदी के कारण सबसे पवित्र स्थान माना जाता था। वह सोचता है कि जो शांति चाहता है उसे विलाप, शिकायत और शोक का तीर निकालना चाहिए। जिसने तीर निकाला है, वह रचा हुआ हो गया है, और उसे मन की शांति मिलेगी; जिसने ऐसी सभी परिस्थितियों को पार कर लिया है, वह दुःख से मुक्त होगा और धन्य होगा। किसा गौतमी अपने बेटे की मौत से दुखी थी। वह घर-घर गई और अंत में बुद्ध के पास आई। उसने उससे अपने बेटे को जीवित करने का विनम्र अनुरोध किया। बुद्ध ने कहा कि वह करेंगे, लेकिन उन्होंने मुट्ठी भर सरसों के दाने मांगे। उन्होंने आगे आज्ञा दी कि इसे उस घर से लिया जाना चाहिए जहां किसी ने बच्चे, पति, माता-पिता या मित्र को नहीं खोया हो। वह घर-घर गई, लेकिन उसे कोई ऐसा नहीं मिला, जहां किसी की मौत न हुई हो। वह थकी हुई और निराश थी और शहर की रोशनी को टिमटिमाते हुए देख रही थी और किनारे पर बैठ गई। और उसने महसूस किया कि ये जीवन कुछ समय के लिए झिलमिलाता है और फिर से बुझ जाता है। इस तरह उसे सिखाया गया कि इस दुनिया में नश्वर लोगों का जीवन परेशान और संक्षिप्त है और ऐसा कोई साधन नहीं है जिससे कोई मृत्यु से बच सके। जैसे कुम्हार द्वारा बनाए गए सभी मिट्टी के बर्तन टूट रहे हैं, वैसे ही नश्वर का जीवन है। मृत्यु अवश्यंभावी है।

Detailed Summary

Gautam Buddha was born in 563 B.C. He was born in a royal family. He was a prince. His name was Siddhartha Gautam. At the age of twelve, he was sent away for schooling. He studied all the sacred Hindu scriptures. He returned after four years. At the age of sixteen, he married a princess. They had a son. For ten years the couple passed a happy life. Siddhartha had been shielded from the suffering of the world. However, when he was twenty-five, Siddhartha saw a sick man, then an aged man, then a funeral procession. Finally, he came across a monk begging for alms. This was his first encounter with the harsh realities of life. These sights made him so sad that he decided to renounce the worldly pleasures. He left his family and became a beggar. He went out into the world to seek spiritual knowledge Siddhartha Gautama wandered for seven years in search of wisdom and truth. Finally, he sat down under a fig tree to meditate. He vowed to stay there until he got enlightenment.

After seven days, Gautama got enlightenment. He named the tree as the ‘Bodhi Tree’. that is ‘The tree of wisdom’. He
became known as ‘the Buddha’ which means ‘enlightened’ or ‘the awakened’. He began to teach and to spread his message of wisdom and truth. He became known as the Buddha (the enlightened). Buddha gave his first sermon at Benares. It is the holiest of places on the bank of the Ganges. His first sermon reflects his wisdom about one inscrutable kind of suffering i.e. death. Here, the Buddha tells about the universality of death which is inevitable and can’t be escaped. A lady named Kisa Gotami had an only son. One day, her son died. She wanted her child should become alive again. She wanted some medicine to bring her son to ‘life. People called her mad. At last, she came across a man. He advised her to meet the Buddha. She approached Buddha with a request to give her medicine so that her only son could he live again. After deep thought, the Buddha asked her to bring a handful of mustard-seed. But there was a condition. She must bring it from a house where no one had died. Kisa Gotami went from door-to-door to get the mustard-seed. She found mustard: seed in every home but she could not find a home where nobody had died. By evening, she was sad and tired. She saw the lights of the city. Soon there was the darkness of the night. Now she considered the fate of man. Now she realised that death is inevitable. No one can escape it.

She came back to the Buddha and asked for his blessings. The Buddha in his sermon told her that our life is brief and painful. Everyone who takes birth has to die. The vessel made by the potter is not permanent. It has to break one day. In the same way, everyone has to die. Death spares none. A father cannot save his son. Everyone grieves when someone dear dies. But grieving cannot bring the dead back to life. So death and sufferings are unavoidable. The wise persons do not grieve as they know the truth. Weeping does not bring peace to the mind. On the other hand, a person’s pain becomes greater by grieving. His body also suffers. One who has learnt to control his grief shall have peace of mind. That person is blessed, who has overcome his sorrow.

Summary in Hindi

गौतम बुद्ध का जन्म 563 ई.पू. उनका जन्म एक शाही परिवार में हुआ था। वह एक राजकुमार था। उसका नाम सिद्धार्थ गौतम था। बारह साल की उम्र में उन्हें स्कूली शिक्षा के लिए भेज दिया गया था। उन्होंने सभी पवित्र हिंदू शास्त्रों का अध्ययन किया। वह चार साल बाद लौटा। सोलह साल की उम्र में उन्होंने एक राजकुमारी से शादी कर ली। इनके एक बेटा था। दस साल तक इस जोड़े ने एक खुशहाल जीवन व्यतीत किया। सिद्धार्थ को संसार के कष्टों से बचा लिया गया था। हालाँकि, जब वे पच्चीस वर्ष के थे, तब सिद्धार्थ ने एक बीमार व्यक्ति, फिर एक वृद्ध व्यक्ति, फिर एक अंतिम संस्कार के जुलूस को देखा। अंत में, वह भिक्षा माँगने वाले एक साधु के पास आया। जीवन की कड़वी सच्चाइयों से यह उनकी पहली मुलाकात थी। इन नजारों ने उन्हें इतना दुखी कर दिया कि उन्होंने सांसारिक त्याग करने का फैसला कर लिया सुख उसने अपना परिवार छोड़ दिया और भिखारी बन गया। वह आध्यात्मिक ज्ञान की तलाश में दुनिया में चले गए सिद्धार्थ गौतम ज्ञान और सच्चाई की तलाश में सात साल तक घूमते रहे। अंत में, वह ध्यान करने के लिए एक अंजीर के पेड़ के नीचे बैठ गया। उन्होंने आत्मज्ञान प्राप्त होने तक वहीं रहने की कसम खाई।

सात दिनों के बाद, गौतम को ज्ञान प्राप्त हुआ। उन्होंने उस वृक्ष का नाम ‘बोधि वृक्ष’ रखा। वह है ‘बुद्धि का वृक्ष’। उसने ‘बुद्ध’ के रूप में जाना जाने लगा जिसका अर्थ है ‘प्रबुद्ध’ या ‘जागृत’। उन्होंने ज्ञान और सच्चाई के अपने संदेश को पढ़ाना और फैलाना शुरू किया। उन्हें बुद्ध (प्रबुद्ध) के रूप में जाना जाने लगा। बुद्ध ने अपना पहला उपदेश बनारस में दिया था। यह गंगा के तट पर स्थित सबसे पवित्र स्थान है। उनका पहला उपदेश एक अचूक प्रकार की पीड़ा यानी मृत्यु के बारे में उनके ज्ञान को दर्शाता है। यहां, बुद्ध मृत्यु की सार्वभौमिकता के बारे में बताते हैं जो अपरिहार्य है और इससे बचा नहीं जा सकता है। किसा गोतमी नाम की एक महिला का एक इकलौता पुत्र था। एक दिन उसका बेटा मर गया। वह चाहती थी कि उसका बच्चा फिर से जीवित हो जाना। वह अपने बेटे को ‘जीवन’ में लाने के लिए कोई दवा चाहती थी। लोग उसे पागल कहते थे। अंत में, वह एक आदमी के पास आई। उसने उसे बुद्ध से मिलने की सलाह दी। उसने बुद्ध के पास अपनी दवा देने का अनुरोध किया ताकि उसका इकलौता बेटा फिर से जीवित हो सके। गहन विचार के बाद, बुद्ध ने उसे एक मुट्ठी राई लाने को कहा। लेकिन एक शर्त थी। वह उसे ऐसे घर से ले आए जहां कोई मरा न हो। किसा गोतमी घर-घर जाकर सरसों-बीज लेने गई। उसे हर घर में सरसों का बीज मिला, लेकिन उसे ऐसा घर नहीं मिला जहाँ किसी की मृत्यु न हुई हो। शाम तक, वह उदास और थकी हुई थी। उसने शहर की रोशनी देखी। कुछ ही देर में रात का अँधेरा छा गया। अब वह मनुष्य के भाग्य पर विचार करती थी। अब उसने महसूस किया कि मृत्यु अवश्यंभावी है। इससे कोई नहीं बच सकता।

वह वापस बुद्ध के पास आई और उनका आशीर्वाद मांगा। बुद्ध ने अपने उपदेश में उनसे कहा था कि हमारा जीवन संक्षिप्त और दर्दनाक है। जो जन्म लेता है उसे मरना ही पड़ता है। कुम्हार द्वारा बनाया गया बर्तन स्थायी नहीं होता। इसे एक दिन तोड़ना है। ऐसे ही सबको मरना है। मौत किसी को नहीं बख्शती। एक पिता अपने बेटे को नहीं बचा सकता। जब कोई प्रिय मरता है तो सभी को दुख होता है। लेकिन शोक करने से मरे हुओं को फिर से जीवित नहीं किया जा सकता। तो मृत्यु और कष्ट अपरिहार्य हैं। ज्ञानी लोग शोक नहीं करते क्योंकि वे सत्य को जानते हैं। रोने से मन को शांति नहीं मिलती। वहीं दूसरी ओर शोक करने से व्यक्ति की पीड़ा और भी बढ़ जाती है। उसके शरीर को भी कष्ट होता है। जिसने अपने दुःख पर नियंत्रण करना सीख लिया है, मन की शांति। वह व्यक्ति धन्य है, जिसने अपने दुखों पर विजय प्राप्त कर ली है।

The Sermon at Benares Class 10 English Important Questions

Extract Based Comprehension Questions Exercises

”The Buddha preached his first sermon at the city of Benares, most holy of the dipping places on the River Ganges; that sermon has been preserved and is given here. It reflects the Buddha’s wisdom about one inscrutable kind of suffering.”

Questions  & Answer

Question. Name the holiest of the dipping places on the River Ganges where the Buddha preached his first sermon.
Ans. Benares.

Question. What does Buddha’s first sermon reflect?
Ans. Buddha’s wisdom about one inscrutable kind of suffering.

Question. What did Gautama do after getting on light emend?
Ans. After getting enlightenment, he began to teach and share his new understandings with the common people.

Question. How was he known as then?
Ans. As he started preaching, he was known as Buddha, meaning, the awakened or the enlightened one.

Extract Based Comprehension Questions Exercises

“Kisa Gotami became weary and hopeless and sat down at the wayside watching the lights of the city, as they flickered up and were extinguished again. At last the darkness of the night reigned everywhere.”

Questions & Answer

Question. Why do you think Kisa Gotami became weary and hopeless?
Ans. it was because she could not find a house where no one had died.

Question. How many sons did Kisa Gotami have?
Ans. Only one.

Question. What did she notice while sitting at the wayside?
Ans. She noticed the flickering lights of the city.

Question. What message did she get from the flickering and extinguishing lights of the city?
Ans. Their lives flicker up and are extinguished.

Extract Based Comprehension Questions Exercises

At twelve, he was sent away for schooling in the Hindu sacred scriptures and years later he returned home to marry a princess. They had a son and lived for ten Y befitting royalty. At about the age of twenty-five, the prince heretofore shielded from sufferings of the world, while out hunting chanced upon a sick man, then an aged than a funeral procession, and finally a monk begging for alms. These sights so move that he at once became a beggar and went out into the world to seek enlighten concerning the sorrows he had witnessed.

Questions  & Answer

Question. What happened at the age of twelve?
Ans. At twelve, he was sent away for schooling in the Hindi; sacred seen

Question. What happened when he was out hunting———-
Ans. He saw a sick man, then human image man and then a funeral procession

Question. Where was he sent away for schooling?
Ans. He was sent away for Schooling in the Hindu sacred scriptures.

Question. When did he marry?
Ans. He married at the age en after completing his schooling

Extract Based Comprehension Questions Exercises

Buddha said, “The life of mortals in this world is troubled and brief and combined with pain. For there is not any means by which those that have been born can avoid dying; after reaching old age there is death; of such a nature are living beings. As ripe fruits are early in danger of falling, so mortals, when born, are always in danger of death. As all earthen vessels made by the Potter end in being broken, so is the life of mortals. Both young and adult, both those who are fools and those who are wise, all fall. Into the power of death, all are subject to death.”

Questions  & Answer

Question. What did the Buddha say about the life of the people?
Ans. The life of people is troubled and brief and combined with pain.

Question. What does a ripe fruit fear?
Ans. A ripe fruit fears the danger of falling.

Question. What happens after reaching age?
Ans. There is death after birth.

Question. What, according to Buddha, death is avoidable?
Ans. There is not any means by which those that have been born, can avoid dying.

Short Answer Questions

Question. Who was Gautam Buddha? Write a few lines about his early life.
Ans. Gautam Buddha was a prince. He was named Siddhartha Gautam by his parents. He was born in 563 B.C. in North India. He was sent away for schooling when he was twelve years old but four years later, he got married to a princess.

Question. What did Buddha say about the mortals of the world?
Ans. The Buddha told Kisa Gotami that the life of mortals is troubled and brief in this world. Those who have been born can’t avoid dying. As ripe fruits are in danger of falling, so mortals are always in danger of death. All earthen vessels end in being broken.

Question. Did Kisa Gotami get a handful of mustard seeds as directed by the Buddha?
Ans. Poor Kisa Gotami went from house to house. The people pitied her and were ready to give a handful of mustard seeds to her. But, she couldn’t find a house where no one had lost a child, husband, parent or friend.

Question. Why did Kisa Gotami say, ‘How selfish am I in my grief!’ What did she realise about the fate of mankind?
Ans. Kisa Gotami became weary and hopeless. At last, the darkness of the night reigned everywhere. She realised that she had been very selfish in her grief Death spares none. One who is born is destined to die sooner or later. No grieving or lamenting would bring a dead man to life.

Long Answer Questions

Question. “The life of mortals in this world is troubled and brief and combined with pain” With this statement of the Buddha, find out the moral values that Kisa Gotami learnt after the death of her child.
Ans. After the death of her only son, Kisa Gotami went to the Buddha. Firstly, she went to every neighbour, asking for medicine for her dead son. She had lost all her senses. She forgot that no medicine could bring back the dead. Then she went to Buddha for making her son alive. Buddha asked her to bring a handful of mustard seeds from a house where no death had occur. But she couldn’t find such a house. The Buddha made her realise that death is common to all. It also shows the detachment from mundane life. Only grieving cannot bring peace of mind.

Question. Why did Kisa Gotami understand the message given by the Buddha only the second time? In what way did the Buddha change her understanding?
Ans. Kisa Gotami had lost her only son and in grief, she carried her dead son to all her neighbours to get him cured and restored back to life. Finally, she went to the Buddha asking him for medicine to cure her boy. The Buddha felt that she needed to be enlightened about the truth of life — that death and sorrow are inescapable. He could see that grief had blinded her, and it would be difficult for her to accept the truth. So the Buddha told her to procure mustard seeds from a house where none had died. Kisa Gotami went from door to door. Then she realized that there was no house where no one had died and that death is common to all. She came back to the Buddha where He sermonized her that life in this world is troubled and filled with sorrows. He gave her examples of ripe fruits and earthen vessels whose ‘lives’ are short. This way he made her realize that death is unavoidable and none — even the near and dear ones — can save anyone from death.

Question. Describe the journey of Siddhartha Gautam becoming the Buddha.
Gautam Buddha began his life as a royal prince. He was named Siddhartha Gautama. At twelve, Gautama was sent away for schooling in the Hindu sacred scriptures. At the age of sixteen, he returned home to marry a princess. The prince was deliberately shielded from all sufferings of the world. But this attempt failed when the prince while out hunting chanced upon a sick man. Then, he saw an aged man. He also chanced to see a funeral procession. Finally, he saw a monk, begging for alms. These sights of suffering, sickness and decay shocked and moved the prince. He wanted to seek the final solution of all these sorrows and sufferings. He wandered for seven Years in search of enlightenment. Finally, he sat down under a fig tree. He meditated there until he was enlightened after seven days. He renamed the tree the Bodhi Tree or the Tree of Wisdom. He became known as the Buddha or the Awakened or the enlightened one. The Buddha gave his first sermon at Benares on the River Ganges

The Sermon at Benares Summary Class 10