Please refer to Transport and Communication Class 12 Geography Exam Questions provided below. These questions and answers for Class 12 Geography have been designed based on the past trend of questions and important topics in your class 12 Geography books. You should go through all Class 12 Geography Important Questions provided by our teachers which will help you to get more marks in upcoming exams.
Class 12 Geography Exam Questions Transport and Communication
Class 12 Geography students should read and understand the important questions and answers provided below for Transport and Communication which will help them to understand all important and difficult topics.
Short Answer Type Questions
Question. Examine the role of Inland Waterways Authority of India.
Answer. The role of Inland Waterways Authority of India is
– The Inland Waterways Authority was set up in 1986. It is entrusted with the responsibility of the development, maintenance and regulation of national waterways in the country.
– It does the function of surveying the economic feasibility of new projects and also the administration of waterways.
– It advises the Central Government on matters related to Inland Waterways.
Question. How are oceanic routes advantageous for India?
Answer. Oceanic routes are advantageous for India in the following ways
– These play an important role in the transport sector of India’s economy.
– About 95% of India’s foreign trade by volume and 70% by value moves through oceanic routes.
– Oceanic routes are advantageous as India has vast coastline of 7,517 km including Islands.
– These routes provide international trade service.
– It provides transportation between the Islands and rest of the country.About 185 minor ports and twelve major ports provide infrastructural support to these routes.
Question. Describe any three advantages of pipelines as a means of transport in India.
Answer. Advantages of pipelines as means of transport in India are
(i) It is most convenient and efficient means of transporting liquids and gases over long distances.
(ii) Pipelines can also transport solids after converting them into slurry.
(iii) Its initial setup cost is high, but once it is recovered, pipelines transport liquids and gases very cheaply. Pipelines are mainly used for transporting crude oil and natural gas for various industries in India.
Question. Explain the functions of Border Road Organisation.
Answer. The Border Road Organisation (BRO) was established in May, 1960. Functions of BRO are
– It aims at accelerating economic development and strengthening defence preparedness through rapid and co-ordinated improvement of strategically important roads along the Northern and North-Eastern boundary of the country.
– Apart from the construction and maintenance of roads in strategically sensitive areas, the BRO also undertakes snow clearance in high altitude areas.
– It also contributes to the socio-economic development of border states.
Question. Describe any three advantages of satellite communication in India.
Answer. Advantages of satellite communication in India
(i) Satellites provide a continuous and overall view of larger area which is very vital for the country due to the economic and strategic reasons.
(ii) Telecommunication, meteorological observation and other data and programmes for India can be obtained through satellite system. Indian National Satellite System (INSAT) is a multipurpose satellite system used for this purpose.
(iii) The Indian Remote Sensing Satellite System (IRS) is very useful in the management of natural resources, monitoring of natural calamities, surveillance of border, etc in India.
Question. Why was the Indian Railway System divided into sixteen zones ? Name the headquarters of Eastern,Western, Northern and Southern zones.
Answer. Indian Railway System has been divided into sixteen zones to reduce the pressure of large size Indian railway on Centralised Railway System. India has one of the longest railway networks in the world and it is the largest government undertaking in India. Indian Railway Network was 66,030 km long as on 31st March, 2015.
Another reason for dividing it into different zone is to provide services through out the country. Zoning help in increasing efficiency of railways.
The Headquarters of Eastern Railway is Kolkata,Western Railway is Mumbai (Church gate), Northern Railway is New Delhi and Southern Railway is Chennai.
Long Answer Type Questions
Question. Give an account of air transportation in India. or What is the importance of air transport? Describe any four characteristics of air transport system of India.
Answer. Air transport facilitates the fastest movement of goods and passengers from one place to another place. It has reduced distances and converted the world into one unit. Air transport has a great importance for a vast country like India where distances are large and the terrain and the climatic conditions are uneven throughout the country.
It is also important for our links with other countries.India occupies a central location between Western Europe and Africa on the one hand and South -East and East Asia on the other hand.
Characteristics of air transport system of India are
(i) To provide safe, efficient air traffic and aeronautical communication services in Indian space, there is regulatory body known as Airport Authority of India.
(ii) There are two corporations, Air India and Indian Airlines, which provide air services in India. Air India handles international traffic passengers and cargo whereas Indian Airlines is the major domestic air carrier of the country.
(iii) In addition to Air India and Indian Airlines, there are two private scheduled airlines operating on the domestic network. 38 companies hold non-scheduled air taxi operators permit. The share of the private sector airways has increased very rapidly after liberalistion.
(iv) Union Government has launched open sky policy in 1982. Under this policy, foreign airlines or association of exporters can bring any freighters to the country. Its objectives is to help exporters, so that their exports become more competitive in the world.
Question. Write any five characteristics of road transport in India.
Answer. Characteristics of road transport in India are
(i) With a total length of 56 lakhs km (2017-18) of roads, India has placed itself among the countries which have a large road network.
(ii) Road transport carries about 85% of passenger and 70% of freight traffic every year. It is preferred for short distance travel as it provides door to door service.
(iii) Roads are mainly concentrated and around urban areas, rural and remote areas are least connected by the roads.
(iv) Distribution of roads is not even throughout the country. Road density is highest in Kerala and lowest in Jammu and Kashmir. Most of the Northern and Southern states have highly dense network of roads as compared to North-East and Himalayan region.
(v) In India, roads are classified on the basis of purpose of construction and maintenance in National Highways (NH), State Highways (SH), major district roads and rural roads.
Question. ‘‘Waterways is an important mode of transport for both passenger and cargo traffic in India.’’ Support the statement with examples.
Answer. Waterways are important mode of transport for both passengers and cargo traffic in India in the following ways
– Waterways provide cheapest and most suitable transportation for heavy and bulky material for long distances from one region to another.
– It is a fuel efficient and eco-friendly means of transport as it does not require maintenance and construction of routes, which involves high cost.
– India has 14,500 km of Inland waterways which accounts for 1% of country’s transportation.
– At present, over 5685 km of rivers are navigable by mechanised vessels in India which are used to transport both passenger and freight.
– Backwaters (Kayal) of Kerala have special significance as they provide cheap means of transport as well as tourism activities.
– It reduces congestion and accidents on roads highways as freight can be moved easily with waterways.
– It can be used for transporting both domestic as well as international cargo. India has many major and minor parts, which are facilitating trade within the country as well as internationally.
– Waterways have potential for cruise, tourism and passenger traffic that can contribute to the development of the country.
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