Please refer to Understanding Social Institutions Class 11 Sociology Notes and important questions below. The Class 11 Sociology Chapter wise notes have been prepared based on the latest syllabus issued for the current academic year by CBSE. Students should revise these notes and go through important Class 11 Sociology examination questions given below to obtain better marks in exams
Understanding Social Institutions Class 11 Sociology Notes and Questions
The below Class 11 Understanding Social Institutions notes have been designed by expert Sociology teachers. These will help you a lot to understand all the important topics given in your NCERT Class 11 Sociology textbook. Refer to Understanding Social Institutions Notes below which have been designed as per the latest syllabus issued by CBSE and will be very useful for upcoming examinations to help clear your concepts and get better marks in examinations.
Institutions are something that work according to rules established or by law or by custom. Institutions impose constraints on individuals. They also provide him/her with opportunities.
A functionalist view understands social institutions as a complex set of social norms, beliefs, values and role relationship that arise in response to the needs of society.
A conflict view holds that all individuals are not placed equally in society. All social institutions whether familial, religious, political, economic, legal or educational will operate in the interest of the dominant sections of society
A family is a group of persons directly linked by kin connections. the adult members of which assume responsibility for caring for children. Family Is the most ‘natural’ universal and unchanging institution.
Forms / Types of Family
With regard to the rule of residence
a). Matrilocal: The newly married couple stays with the woman’s parents.
b). Patrilocal: The couple lives with the man’s parents.
With regard to the rules of inheritance
a). Matrilineal societies pass on property from mother to daughter.
b). Patrilineal societies do so from father to son.
With regard to the power/authority
A patriarchal family structure exists where the men exercise authority and dominance,matriarchy where the women play a similarly dominant role.
Marriage can be defined as a socially acknowledged and approved sexual union between two adult individuals.
Forms of marriage
1) Monogamy :Under this system, at any given time a man can have only one wife and a woman can have only one husband. Monogamy is more widely prevalent.
Serial monogamy:In many societies, individuals are permitted to marry again, after the death of the first spouse or after divorce. But they cannot have more than one spouse at one and the same time. Such a monogamous marriage is termed serial monogamy.
2) Polygamy denotes marriage to more than one mate at one time and takes the form of either: Polygyny-one husband with two or more wives or Polyandry –one wife with two or more husbands.
Rules of Marriage -Endogamy and Exogamy
Based on rules governing eligibility/ ineligibility of mates is classified as endogamy and exogamy.
Endogamy requires an individual to marry within a culturally defined group
Exogamy, the reverse of endogamy, requires the individual to marry outside of his/her own group.
Kinship ties are connections between individuals, established either through marriage or through the lines of descent that connect blood relatives.
Types of Kinship
The kin who are related through “blood” are called consanguine kin while the kin who are related through marriage are called affine.
Religion exists in all known societies, although religious beliefs and practices vary from culture to culture.
– Set of symbols, invoking feelings of
– Reverence or awe
– Rituals or ceremonies
– A community of believers.
Emile Durkheim, argue that religion distinguishes sacred realm from the profane.
Max Weber argue that religion, does have an influence on economic development.
Education is a life long process, involving both formal and informal institutions of learning.
For the functionalists, education maintains and renews the social structure, transmits and develops culture. Conflict theorist argue that schooling ‘intensifies the existing divide between the elite and the masses.