Unseen Passage for Class 10 English with Answers

Unseen Passages

Unseen Passage: Difficult But Worth It

With high-visibility film releases and continued discounts on all brands, Delhiites usually have a lot to do on their much awaited August 15 holiday. But as some kite lovers tell us, even with all the options available to them, switching off from those options and coming back to kites and socializing is worth it. Amit Chadha, who runs his own business in Kamla Nagar, tells us, “The excitement of flying kites is not the same as it used to be when we were kids. Tab toh kuch aur hota hi nahi tha karne ko, sirf terrace kite wars hote they. Now, cancelling movie and travel plans to fly kites with friends seems like a bad idea to most, but my group of friends and I still make it happen. We think it’s worth switching off from the usual rigmarole on one day and doing something relaxed and fun like this. Every year, we get a lot of friends who see our updates online, and then join us by the evening. This year also, we have a kite flying get-together at my place on the 15th.” Saurabh Tiwari, an MBA student staying with his family in Paschim Vihar in West Delhi, adds, “I’ve been away from home for the last two I-Days, but now that I am back, I want to do what we’ve always done on this day — get a music system on the roof, some snacks, lots of friends – and fly kites. I have made a WhatsApp group and I’m convincing my friends to get together and come over to our old flat’s terrace. August 15 used to be a day-long kite-flying party for us, and I really want to do the same thing now, even though it doesn’t happen so much in other parts of the city these days.”

Passing on the tradition

Getting over the whole August 15 kite flying concept is most difficult for children of the 80s and the 90s, who have grown up participating in society functions where they indulged in kite battles. And for them, getting their kids and the next generation excited about the same is a very “important challenge”. Juhi Malpani Bhatt, a professor of architecture, who stays with her family in Dwarka, tells us, “When we were kids, we would get excited about kites weeks in advance. I really missed all that when I moved out of Delhi for a short while. But now, I want both my kids to feel the same way about kites. We’ve been getting them kites for the past couple of years, and thanks to their school functions and our efforts, they’ve developed a liking for it and that makes me happy and nostalgic.” Vinod Taneja, who works with a bank in Green Park, is still trying to get his kids out of their rooms and onto the terrace. He says, “For us, kite flying came so naturally. We were never taught how to do it, bas dekhi dikhai ho jaati thi. I am trying to get my son to be involved in the whole August 15 kite flying thing now. But usko TV se hata ke upar leke
jaana hi ek struggle hai. Plus, how do I teach him? This year again, we’ve got kites and manjhas and have invited friends over. I really want him to feel the way we felt about this day. So let’s see what happens.”

Questions & Answer

Questions. What do some kite lovers tell about their option?
Ans. Some kite lovers would like to use the option of flying kites on August 15.

Questions. What does Amit Chadha say about the excitement of flying kites?
Ans. Amit Chadha feels that the excitement of flying kites is not the same as it used to be when he was a kid.

Questions. Do people in general like cancelling movies and travel plans to fly kites?
Ans. No, people in general would not like cancelling movies and travel plans to fly kites.

Questions. How does Saurabh Tiwari enjoy flying kites on the roof?
Ans. Saurabh Tiwari will take some snacks, a music system and lots of friends on the roof to enjoy kite flying on the Independence Day.

Questions. Is getting over the whole August 15 kite flying concept easy for children of the 80s and 90s?
Ans. No, the children of 80s and 90s were brought up in the tradition of flying kites on the Independence Day.

Questions. What makes Juhi happy and nostalgic?
Ans. Flying kites on the Independence Day with her kids makes Juhi happy and nostalgic.

Questions. How does Vinod Taneja struggle with his son regarding kite flying?
Ans. Vinod Taneja struggles with his son as the child is glued to the television and has no interest in flying kites.

Questions. What does Vinod Taneja want his son to feel?
Ans. Vinod Taneja wants his son to feel the way he felt about the Independence Day himself when he was a kid.

Unseen Passage: transfer of power in India

Two-thirds of a century into India’s independence, two aspects of the country’s political evolution are noteworthy. The first is the institutionalization of the periodic transfer of power, peacefully and predictably, recently evident in NDA’s victory earlier this year. But the journey has been much rockier with regard to another critical question: how to direct that power for the broader public good. 

While popular commentary on political power focuses on its misuse for private gain or corruption, there has been less attention on the limited ability of political power to translate intentions into outcomes. 

The history of independent India is replete with government programmes, ranging from state-owned enterprises to multiple poverty programmes, where political power did have good intentions, but where outcomes have left much to be desired. Critics have put the onus on misaligned incentives and a craven political-bureaucratic nexus. 

These factors have their roots in a distinctive feature of India’s political evolution: namely the weakness of the Indian state, hobbled as much by lack of competence as by corruption. Historically the state in India has always been weak and this changed only modestly after Independence. Yes, the state expanded massively; and yes the social composition of the functionaries of the Indian state has changed markedly. 

Size and social legitimacy undoubtedly have built state ‘strength’ — the negative power of the Indian state to thwart is certainly manifest. But positive power — the power to do something, to execute programmes and provide basic public goods that are the bread and butter of a state’s responsibilities to its citizens — is still a far cry. 

Why strong states develop in some societies and not in others is a complex historical question. One argument is that a strong state can only be built on a firm foundation of nationhood which itself is still a work-in-progress in India. Another view is that warfare laid the foundations of the modern nation state especially in Europe and East Asia. 

Historian Charles Tilly famously argued that states make war and war makes states, a reference to the rise of the modern European state after centuries of warfare among hundreds of polities and kingdoms. The ability to wage war successfully requires states to create viable systems of taxation, mobilization and coordination — and only those states that can, survive. But these attributes are also critical for any modern state to deliver public goods and services

Questions & Answer

Questions. How has the transfer of power in India taken place?
Ans. The transfer of power in India has taken place quite peacefully and in a democratic manner.

Questions. Why has the journey been much rockier regarding the second critical question?
Ans.  Regarding translating good intentions into solid result, the journey has been quite rockier for the government so far.

Questions. Why has there been less attention on the implementation of schemes?
Ans. There has been more stress on talking than, giving attention to the implementation, of schemes by the government.

Questions. What were the outcomes of the good intentions of the government?
Ans. The outcomes of the good intentions of the government were not very encouraging. 

Questions. Whom do critics hold responsible for this poor show?
Ans. Misaligned incentives and the nexus between politicians and bureaucrats have been held responsible for the poor show.

Questions. What has still remained a far cry?
Ans. Providing relief to the masses and implementing the welfare programmes has remained a far cry so far.

Questions. What is another view regarding laying the foundations of the modern nation state?
Ans. Another view is that warfare laid the foundations of the modern nation state in Europe and East Asia.

Questions. What has the historian Charles Tilly argued?
Ans. Historian Charles Tilly argues that states make war and war makes states.

Unseen Passage: Speeding Up India’s Journey By Bullet trains

                                                                                   By: Vijay Kumar Dutt,
Indian Railways High speed in Indian Railways is at present limited to 150 KMPH. However, in many other countries the speed of Railways is of the order of 200 KM per hour (KMPH). In France, Japan, Germany, China, Spain and South Korea high speed traction above 280 KMPH has been introduced. India and Japan have signed a memorandum of understanding (MoU) on 12th December, 2015 on cooperation and assistance in the Mumbai–Ahmedabad High Speed Rail (HSR) Project referred to by many as ‘Bullet Train Project’. Japan has offered an assistance of over Rs. 79,000 crore for the project. The loan is for a period of 50 years with a moratorium of 15 years, at an interest rate of 0.1 per cent.

The project is a 508-kilometre Railway line costing a total of Rs. 97,636 crore, to be implemented in a period of seven years. It has been agreed that for the Mumbai – Ahmedabad HSR Project. Japan’s Shinkansen Technology, known for its speeds reliability and safety, will be adopted. Transfer of technology and “Make in India” will be essential part of this assistance package. Japan will also assist India in training of personnel for HSR.’ The two countries have also entered into two comprehensive technological cooperation agreements on 11th December 2015, for modernization and up gradation of Indian railways. These agreements have been signed during the official visit to India of His Excellency Mr. Shinzo Abe, the Prime Minister of Japan, during December 11-13, 2015.

On the basis of your reading of the passage, answer the questions: 

A) Name the countries where high speed traction above 280 KMPH has been introduced.

Ans.

High speed traction above 280 KMPH has been introduced in France, Japan, Germany, China, Spain and South Korea

B) Which project is known as “Bullet Train Project”?

Ans.

The MoU signed between India and Japan on cooperation and assistance in the Mumbai–Ahmedabad High Speed Rail (HSR) Project is known as “Bullet Train Project”

C) How much time and money is estimated for the Project?

Ans.

The time of seven years and an amount of about Rs 97,636 crore is estimated for the project

D) Which technology will be adopted for the Project?

Ans.

Shinkansen Technology will be adopted for the Project.

E) What agreements were signed during 11th December to 13th December2015?

Ans.

The agreements signed during 11th December to 13th December 2015 were modernization and upgradation of Indian railways.

F) What is Shinkansen Technology famous for?

Ans.

Shinkansen Technology is famous for its speeds reliability and safety

G) How has Japan assisted India financially for the Project?

Ans.

Japan has offered an assistance of over Rs. 79,000 crore for the project. The loan is for a period of 50 years with a moratorium of 15 years, at an interest rate of 0.1 per cent.

H) In paragraph No. 2 the synonym of ‘essential’ is :
(a) unwanted (b) inessential (c) unnecessary (d) fundamental

Ans.

The word is ‘fundamental’.

Unseen Passage: 1986 Asian Games at Seoul

It was in the 1986 Asian Games at Seoul when Kartar Singh beat Pakistan’s Shahid Pervaiz Butt in 100kg category to claim the yellow metal. It was the last time an Indian grappler had won gold in the Asian Games.

Twenty eight years hence, the wrestling contingent will be looking to break the jinx. The wrestling squad -7 freestyle, 7 Greco-Roman and 4 women will be without two-time Olympic medallist Sushil Kumar who pulled out due to a shoulder injury and lack of preparation.

In his absence, London Olympics bronze medallist and Glasgow Commonwealth Games gold winner Yogeshwar Dutt will spearhead the Indian challenge in Incheon.

“We have trained very well. Sushil ki kami khalegi (The squad will miss Sushil’s presence). But we are still expecting around four to five medals in freestyle and this includes some gold medals too. In wrestling, an Asian Games medal is like winning the World Championship,” a confident Yogeshwar said.

India’s performance dropped from six medals (1 silver and 5 bronze) in the 2006 Asiad in Doha to only three bronze medals in 2010. But this time round, the squad promises to surpass expectations.

Young Amit Kumar, who won gold in the Glasgow Commonwealth Games and bronze in the World Championship, is one of the leading contenders for gold in the 57kg category. World No. 1 Hassan Rahimi of Iran is likely to pose a tough challenge for the Indian, who is ranked second in the world.

World No. 5 Narasingh Yadav will fill in for Sushil in the 74kg category while World Junior medallist Praveen Rana (70kg), who also won a gold in Colorado Springs, US, early this year, will look to impress. The 70kg category is being introduced for the first time after the International wrestling federation (FILA) introduced new rules and tweaked weight categories late last year in an attempt to make the sport more exciting.

Glasgow CWG silver medallist Bajrang Punia (61kg), bronze medallist Pawan Kumar (86kg) and silver medallist Satayavrat Kadiyan (97kg) complete the line-up in the freestyle category.

There will be no participation in the 125kg category. The Indians are likely to face a stiff challenge from South Korea, Mongolia, Iraq, Japan and Kazakhstan.

“This team is better than the team that participated in Guangzhou in 2010. Yogeshwar and Amit are contenders for gold while Bajrang, Praveen and Narsingh have the capability to contribute to India’s medal haul,” coach Yashvir summed it up.

In the Greco-Roman, India, traditionally a force at the Asian level, are likely to return with a rich medal haul. The squad includes five-time Commonwealth champion and Asian Games bronze medalist Ravinder, Asian champion Krishan Kumar Yadav, World Championship bronze winner Sandeep Yadav, Asian Championship bronze medalist Manoj Kumar and, Arjuna Awardee Dharmender Dalal.

Questions & Answer

Questions. When did an Indian grappler win gold in the Asian games last time?
Ans. It was in 1986 Asian games at Seoul when the Indian wrestler Kartar Singh won the gold medal last.

Questions. What has the wrestling contingent been looking forward to during these 28 years?
Ans. During these 28 years the wrestling contingent has been looking forward to break the jinx.

Questions. Name the Olympic medalist who has pulled out of the games due to a shoulder injury.
Ans. Sushil Kumar, the two time Olympic medallist, has pulled out of the Asian Games 2014 due to a shoulder injury.

Questions. Who will spearhead the Indian challenge in wrestling in Incheon?
Ans. Yogeshwar Dutt, who won the bronze at the London Olympics will spearhead the Indian challenge in wrestling in Incheon.

Questions. How is winning an Asian games medal in wrestling like?
Ans. Winning an Asian Games medal in wrestling is like winning the world championship.

Questions. How did India perform in 2010 in New Delhi?
Ans. India’s performance dropped from six medals in Doha to only three bronzes in 2010 Asian Games.

Questions. Who will fill in for Sushil in the 74 kg category at the Asian games?
Ans. Nar singh Yadav, World No. 5, will fill in for Sushil in the 74 kg category.

Questions. Name the countries that will throw a stiff challenge to Indian wrestlers in Incheon.
Ans. South Korea, Mongolia, Iraq, Japan and Kazakhstan will throw a stiff challenge to Indian wrestlers in Incheon.

Unseen Passage: Confusing Signals

Prime Minister Narendra Modi’s comment during his recent visit to Leh that Pakistan had lost the ability to fight a conventional war and was hence engaging in a proxy war by aiding and abetting terrorists does nothing to move the needle forward on improving India-Pakistan relations. The comment – made to Indian soldiers and officers – fails to
take cognisance of the fact that the Nawaz Sharif government in Islamabad isn’t the sole or even main actor in determining Pakistan’s India policy.

It’s hardly a coincidence that hours after Modi’s comment Pakistani troops violated the ceasefire along the border. Again predictably, Islamabad’s foreign office responded to Modi’s charge by stating that Pakistan itself was a victim of terrorism and that New Delhi would do well not to engage in blame games. All of this takes away from the positive momentum that had been generated when Modi invited SAARC leaders to attend his swearing-in ceremony in May. That Sharif had made the trip to New Delhi had given rise to hopes that Modi is capable of thinking out of the box on Pakistan. But putting the screws on Islamabad ahead of the upcoming meeting of foreign secretaries will only strengthen hawks in the Pakistani establishment.

Moreover, the Sharif government is under siege with two separate protest marches to Islamabad – one led by opposition leader Imran Khan and the other by Canada-based religious scholar Tahir-ul Qadri – planned for today, Pakistan’s independence day. Both sets of protesters want Sharif to go and are rumoured to be supported by Pakistan’s
military-intelligence complex. If the latter is true, it would mean that Pakistan’s security establishment is using the protests to send out a clear message to the civilian dispensation that it retains a veto on key issues.

Instead of doing the familiar talks-no talks routine with Pakistan, there is an unconventional path the Modi government can adopt to resolve the various irreconciliables it faces. If the Pakistan army is the main actor in determining India policy, a way must be found to engage the Pakistani armed forces themselves, whether through formal or informal
channels, and to assuage their anxieties vis-a-vis India. UPA was hardly capable of this since it generally stuck to the tried and tested path. But Modi has shown a capacity to innovate and surprise, as in the case of his invitation to Sharif. More of such innovation will be needed for progress in India-Pakistan ties.

Question & Answer

Question. Why is Pakistan indulging in a proxy war?
Ans. Pakistan has lost the ability to fight a conventional war with India. Hence, it is engaging India in a proxy war by aiding and abetting terrorists.

Question. What hope had Sharif’s trip to Delhi during Modi’s swearing-in-ceremony generated? Did it materialise?
Ans. Sharif’s trip to New Delhi to attend Modi’s swearing-in-ceremony generated a hope that the relations between India and Pakistan would improve in future. The continued ceasefire violations have belied all such expectations.

Question. How is the Pakistani security establishment using the protests against the Sharif’s government?
Ans. The Pakistani security establishment is using the recent protests led by Imran Khan and Qadri to strengthen its position. It wants to give a clear message to the government that it retains a veto on key issues.

Question. How can Modi deal with Pakistan in the new situation?
Ans. Modi has already shown a capacity to innovate and surprise in such complex matters. He can adopt the right strategy to deal with Pakistan in the changed circumstances

Vocabulary

Question. The most appropriate synonym for the word ‘traditional’ in the passage is:
(a) conventional
(b) convention
(c) convent
(d) innovative

Ans.

conventional

Question. Choose the right option from those given below to give the noun form of the word ‘responded’ in the passage:
(a) responsible
(b) response
(c) responsive
(d) responding

Ans.

response

Question. Those who believe in wars are called:
(a) fighters
(b) jingoes
(c) hawks
(d) violents

Ans.

hawks

Question. Making sudden changes according to situation is called:
(a) invention
(b) innovation
(c) innovate
(d) innovated

Ans.

innovation

Unseen Passage: In School, But Are They

Across the country, there is a simmering unease with the education that our 315 million students are getting. Everybody wants education, but most are dissatisfied with it. The biggest issue is this: will it help make a better life? But there is also the feeling, often confirmed, that students are not really learning much.

Several surveys of how well students are learning have shown dismal results.According to the ASER 2013 survey report, 60% of Class 3 students surveyed couldn’t read a Class 1 text. This is up from 53% in 2009. This doesn’t improve in higher classes –53% of Class 5 students couldn’t read a Class 2 text, up from 47% in 2009. A higher proportion is unable to deal with subtraction and division.

Although she doesn’t give much credence to these surveys, Anita Rampal, professor of elementary and social education at Delhi University’s Central Institute of Education, agrees that the schooling system is not delivering. There are three key factors behind a successful schooling system, according to her: building of knowledge and critical faculties, good facilities and environment in school, and an equitable system where all kinds of children learn together.

“In India, we’re lagging in all three and that is why students are not learning to their full potential,” rues Rampal.

Lessons in schools are often information driven, with the teacher giving information that students are expected to soak up and reproduce in the poorly designed examinations, she explains. Classrooms are dull, teachers just stuff information into students and the exam-centric approach finishes off any possibility of ‘learning’.

Contrary to popular perception, children drop out of school most often because they are not getting anything from it, says Meena Shrinivasan, an award winning children’s books author and educational consultant.

“Either the language used in school is too foreign to them and they are treated like inferior species, or the matter being taught is irrelevant, or the absence of toilets for girls makes it impossible to continue, or the teacher is harsh and beats children for not understanding or performing, or it is all just so boring and burdensome that it is just more fun to drop
out,” she says. The most vulnerable students, dalits, tribals and girls quit school the first. A recent survey of nearly 1.52 million schools by NUEPA reveals a startling picture of facilities in schools. Over 41% schools do not have a playground, 43% don’t have electricity connection, 76% don’t have computers. Although more than three quarters of the schools
had a library, 82% did not have a librarian to look after the books and guide the children. Worldwide, research shows that one of the most reliable predictors of success in later grades is good reading ability in early grades, which comes from good teaching and from a print-rich environment, says Shrinivasan. “Most children in this country come from homes where recreational reading is not a priority or even a possibility, and so they depend on school for their books. Most schools tend to choose some preachy morally uplifting books that no one wants to read, and these too are not easily accessible to children,” she stresses. Teachers who enjoy books and can share this passion with children, and know how to teach reading, and a plentiful supply of age-appropriate interesting fiction and non-fiction are what children need more than any other educational input, Shrinivasan says.

But the condition of teachers is such that 28% teachers in primary schools are not even professionally qualified according to official statistics. In some states the situation is even worse. In the eight north-eastern states, just 36% teachers are qualified on an average. In Bihar, Bengal and J&K about 3 out of 5 teachers are not duly qualified to teach primary students.

Whole generations of children —-India’s future – are going through this broken education system, somehow managing to get past exams, or dropping out by the wayside. It is not difficult to imagine what their, and the country’s future is likely to be if things are not improved drastically.

Question & Answer 

Question. Why is there a simmering unease with the education that 315 million students are getting today?
Ans. Students want good education but most of them are dissatisfied with it. There is a simmering unease among them that they are not really learning much in such a set up.

Question. What are the possible three key factors behind a successful schooling?
Ans. There are three possible key factors behind a successful schooling system. They are:(i) building of knowledge and critical faculties(ii) good facilities and environment(iii) an equitable system for all students

Question. What are the factors that let a large number of students drop out of school in the middle?
Ans. Language problem, ill treatment, irrelevant subject matter, absence of toilets for girls are some of the factors that let students drop out of their schools in the middle.

Question. What is the general condition of teachers in most of our primary schools?
Ans. About 28% of teachers in primary schools are not even professionally qualified. In the North-eastern states and in Bihar, Bengal and J&K, 3 out of 5 teachers are not duly qualified to teach primary students.

Vocabulary

Question. The most appropriate option for the word ‘seething’ is:
(a) simmering
(b) restless
(c) violent
(d) anger

Ans.

simmering

Question. Synonym for the word ‘kinds’ of persons is:
(a) variety
(b) disparities
(c) species
(d) races

Ans.

species

Question. The opposite of the word ‘relevant’ is:
(a) irrelevant
(b) irrelevance
(c) relevance
(d) irreverent

Ans.

irrelevant

Question. The noun form of ‘recreational’ is:
(a) recreating
(b) recreating
(c) recreation
(d) recreationing

Ans.

recreation

Unseen Passage: Reality Check By Toi Reveals Overflowing Garbage Dumps And Debris

Will the city be free from garbage and dirt by August 15? A week-long sanitation and cleanliness drive was launched with much fanfare by the administration a few days back, but a reality check reveals that it has remained sporadic. While the civic agencies are making tall claims publicly, the enormity of the task rules out making any significant
difference by the end of the exercise.

TOI took a round of the city. Overflowing garbage dumps and waste and debris along the roads were a common sight though the corporations claim to be removing 30% more of garbage daily as part of the drive.

Hardly 500m away from the north and south corporations’ headquarters, Civic Centre, on Jawahar Lal Nehru Marg, at Turkman Gate, one found a huge garbage dump with the waste spilling on to the road. “It is a shame that the corporation has failed to clean the area visible from its own office. In the past one month, hardly anyone has been seen cleaning the area,” said Ramesh Babbar, a local trader.

Across the city, on CV Raman Road, outside New Friends Colony, there is a huge garbage pile. The residents have complained to the corporation several times since during peak traffic hours, this stretch becomes a bottleneck. “Never are the bins placed on the road clean. From the dhalao, garbage spills on to the road,” complained Madhu Arora, a resident living just across the road.

Similarly, in Lajpat Nagar-I’s B-block, just outside a government school, garbage has remained dumped for days. Several complaints have been made but to no avail. “From the school principal to parents, everyone has complained about the heap of garbage outside the school. It is very difficult for the girls to pass through this stretch. The stench
is overpowering, especially during monsoon, and diseases are rampant in the area. The lane is narrow and the parked cars and garbage ensure that it remains blocked,” said area councillor Abhishek Dutt.

Across the river, near Laxmi Nagar’s V3S mall, the story is no different. There is a dhalao virtually in the middle of the road and the garbage spills out, making the space even narrower. With massive gridlocks during peak traffic hours, it is a nightmare for commuters. “With shops and a mall nearby, there are cars parked on the road, and the dhalao only adds to the chaos. It’s a breeding ground for mosquitoes, and for pedestrians, it’s a nightmare. But the corporation isn’t doing anything despite several complaints,” said BS Vohra of East Delhi RWA’s Federation.

But corporation officials are patting themselves on the back. A rally of school children was organized by North Delhi Municipal Corporation for City Zone on Tuesday to create awareness about sanitation, health and hygiene. “From every zone we are removing around 150 metric tonnes more than usual. On an average, Delhi produces 7000 metric tonnes
of waste everyday, but for the past one week, we are removing more than 9000 metric tonnes,” said Mukesh Yadav, south corporation’s spokesperson.

Questions & Answer

Questions. What has been the outcome of a week-long sanitation and cleanliness drive that was launched by the administration with so much fanfare?
Ans. The campaign of freeing the city from garbage and dirt by August 15, started by the administration has been a great flop. The campaign failed to make any significant improvement in the prevailing situation.

Questions. What does the reality check by TOI reveal?
Ans. The reality check by TOI reveals that overflowing garbage dumps, waste and debris lying along the roads are still a common sight in the city. The tall claims of the administration have been proved totally false.

Questions. What is the situation just outside a government school in Lajpat Nagar-I’s B-Block?
Ans. Garbage remains dumped for days outside a government school in Lajpat Nagar- I’s B-Block. It gives a foul stench. Diseases are rampant in the area.

Questions. Why are corporation officials patting themselves on the back?
Ans. The Corporation officials are patting themselves on their back just for nothing. Their campaign of creating awareness about sanitation, health and hygiene has not achieved its desired aims. Dirt and garbage still stink the city.

Vocabulary

Questions. The word used in the passage for ‘rubbish’ is:
(a) garbage
(b) dirt
(c) dust
(d) litters

Ans.

garbage

Questions. Choose the appropriate noun form of the word ‘enormous’ in the passage:
(a) enorm
(b) enormity
(c) anomaly
(d) none of these

Ans.

enormity

Questions. A ‘bad smell’ is called:
(a) odour
(b) stench
(c) gas
(d) scent

Ans.

stench

Questions. The correct synonym for the word ‘widespread’ in the passage is:
(a) rampant
(b) enormous
(c) universal
(d) common

Ans.

rampant

Read the following passage carefully.

TIGER SURVIVAL

(1) Now is the time to save the magnificent cats, before they vanish from the earth forever. There is a little time left to preserve these animals, so immediate action is required. The latest predictions state that tigers will be extinct in the wild by the year 2025. That is less than six short years, from now; less than six years to save a creature that has been around far longer than us!

(2) I cannot imagine, nor would I wish, living in a world without tigers, without these magnificent creatures living freely in the forests.

(3) The power and beauty of tigers is indisputable. They are an integral part of the ecosystem as they are a major link in the food chain. Tigers have been bestowed magical and supernatural properties by many societies, and have also been revered as Gods. All living creatures of mother earth depend on one another for survival. We, as human beings, are brothers and sisters to every living being, from the plants to the animals and to each other.

(4) Tigers are often killed in the most barbaric and unbelievably cruel ways. Crimes like the killing of tigers must be stopped right way. We must do whatever we can to stop the killing of this magnificent creature. We can write to our government and the governments of countries with tiger populations and urge them to protect the tiger. Penalties for killing tigers and other protected wildlife need to be strict and deterring, and enforced with equal might to discourage the poaching of tigers, and bring to task those who profit from such killings.

Question. What can we do to protect the tigers?
(a) We can plant more trees and discourage the practise of deforestation.
(b) We can take care of the ecosystem as they are a major link in the food chain.
(c) We can urge the government to protect the tiger and pose penalties for killing tigers.
(d) We can built zoos to preserve the remaining population of tigers.

Answer

C

Question. What is indisputable?
(a) Power of tigers
(b) Beauty of tigers
(c) Killing of tigers
(d) Both (a) and (b)

Answer

D

Question. On what does all living creatures of mother earth depend for survival?
(a) Wildlife
(b) Natural objects
(c) One another
(d) Ecosystem

Answer

C

Question. Which of the following statement is NOT TRUE, according to the passage?
(a) Tigers have been bestowed magical and supernatural properties by many societies.
(b) Tigers are often killed in the most interesting and fascinating ways.
(c) The power and beauty of tigers is indisputable.
(d) The latest predictions state that tigers will be extinct in the wild by the year 2025.

Answer

B

Question. What are we, human beings, to every living being? A
(a) Brothers and Sisters
(b) Protectors
(c) Enemies
(d) Opponents

Answer

A

Read the passage given below and answer the questions that follow :

(1) Have you ever failed at something so miserably that the thought of attempting to do it again was the last thing you wanted to do?

(2) If your answer is yes, then you are “not a robot.” Unlike robots, we human beings have feelings, emotions, and dreams. We are all meant to grow and stretch despite our circumstances and our limitations. Flourishing and trying to make our dreams come true is great when life is going our way. But what happens when it’s not? What happens when you fail despite all of your hard work? Do you stay down and accept the defeat or do you get up again and again until you are satisfied? If you have a tendency to preserve and keep going then you have what experts call, grit.

(3) Falling down or failing is one of the most agonizing, embarrassing and scariest human experiences. But it is also one of the most educational, empowering and essential parts of living a successful and fulfilling life. Did you know that perseverance (grit) is one of the seven qualities that have been described as the keys to personal success and betterment in society? The other six are: curiosity, gratitude, optimism, self-control, social intelligence, and zest. Thomas Edison is a model for grit for trying 1,000 plus times to invent the light bulb. If you are reading this with the lights on in your room, you know well he succeeded. When asked why he kept going despite his hundreds of failures, he merely stated that they were not failures. They were hundreds of ways not to create a light bulb. This statement not only revealed his grit but also his optimism for looking at the bright side.

(4) Grit can be learnt to help you become more successful. One of the techniques that help is mindfulness. Mindfulness is a practice that helps the individual stay in the moment by bringing awareness of his or her experience without judgement. This practice has been used to quiet the noise of their fears and doubts. Through the simple practice of mindfulness, individuals have the ability to stop the self-sabotaging downward spiral of hopelessness, despair and frustration.

(5) What did you do to overcome the negative and self-sabotaging feelings of failure? Reflect on what you did, and try to use those same powerful resources to help you today.

Question. In what ways can grit be developed?
Answer. Do not accept defeat; effort to overcome limitations; not to stay down.

Question. How does mindfulness help?
Answer. Mindfulness is a practice that helps the individual stay in the moment by bringing awareness of his or her experience without judgement. This practice is a technique that many have used to quieten the noise of their fears and doubts.

Question. According to the passage, what are the attributes of a human?
Answer. Feelings, emotions, dreams, eagerness to grow and flourish to realize dreams are some of the attributes of a human.

Question. What is perceived as grit?
Answer. If you have a tendency to persevere and keep going, then you have what experts call grit.

Question. How is ‘failing’ an educational and empowering part of human life?
Answer. Failing teaches how to be perseverant and keep going for one’s goals. Each failure makes one understand what to do and what not to do.

Question. In paragraph 2, ___________ means continue.
(a) robots
(b) satisfied
(c) persevere
(d) flourishing

Answer

C

Question. In paragraph 3, the synonym of ‘distressing’ is ___________.
(a) embarrassing
(b) scariest
(c) agonizing
(d) failing

Answer

C

Question. While inventing the light bulb, Thomas Edison had failed _____________
(a) 1000 times
(b) 10000 times
(c) 10000 times
(d) 10000 times

Answer

A

Question. Failure is a part of ___________ life.
(a) normal
(b) common
(c) human
(d) ordinary

Answer

C

Question. ___________ helps in preventing individuals from going down the lines of despair.
(a) Mindfulness
(b) Satisfied
(c) Persevere
(d) Flourishing

Answer

A

Read the following passage carefully.

THE ROAD AHEAD

(1) Our opportunities are great, but let me warn you, when power outstrips ability, we will fall on evil days. We should develop competency and ability which would help us utilise the opportunities which are now open to us. From tomorrow morning—from midnight today—we cannot throw the blame on the Britishers. We have to assume the responsibility ourselves for what we do. A free India will be judged by the way in which it will serve the interests of the common man in the matters of food, clothing, shelter, and social activities. Unless we root out corruption in high places and root out every trace of nepotism, love of power, profiteering and black marketing, which have spoiled the good name of this country in recent times, we will not be able to raise the standards of efficiency in administration as well as in the production and distribution of the necessary goods of life.
(2) Pandit Jawaharlal Nehru referred to the great contribution which this country will make to the promotion of world peace and the welfare of mankind. The chakra, the Ashoka wheel, which is there in the flag embodies for us a great idea, Ashoka, the greatest of our emperors. Look at the words of H.G. Wells about Ashoka, ‘Highnesses, Magnificences,Excellences, Serenities, Majesties. Among them all, he shines alone a star, Ashoka the greatest of all monarchs.’ He cut into rock his message for the healing of discords. If there are differences, the way in which you can solve them is by promoting concord.Concord is the only way by which we can get rid of differences. There is no other method which is open to us.
(3) We are lucky in having our leader, one who is a world citizen, who is essentially a humanist, who possesses a buoyant optimism and robust good sense in spite of the perversity of things and the hostility of human affairs. We see the way in which his department interfered actively and in a timely manner in the Indonesian dispute. It shows that if India gains freedom, that freedom will be used not merely for the wellbeing of India but for Vishva Kalyana, world peace, the welfare of mankind.
Extract from a speech by Dr Radhakrishnan

On the basis of your reading of the given passage, choose the correct option. 

Question. A free India will be judged by the way in which it will:
(a) utilise the opportunities which are open
(b) blame the Britishers
(c) serve the interests of the common man
(d) raise the standard of efficiency in administration

Answer

C

Question. How can we raise the standards of efficiency in administration as well as in the production and distribution of the necessary goods of life?
(a) By rooting out corruption in high places
(b) By encouraging love of power
(c) By eradicating every trace of nepotism and black marketing
(d) Both (a) and (c)

Answer

D

Question. Based on your reading of the passage, choose the incorrect statement from the following.
(a) Concord is the only way by which we can get rid of differences.
(b) A free India will be judged by the way we will root out corruption in high places.
(c) If India gains freedom, the freedom will be used for the welfare of mankind.
(d) Profiteering and black marketing have spoiled the good name of this country in recent times.

Answer

B

Question. Which of the following explains the phrase ‘root out’?
(a) To find and remove
(b) To mock and laugh
(c) To fight and win
(d) To promote and contribute

Answer

A

Question. ‘We are lucky in having our leader, one who is a world citizen, who is essentially a humanist, who possess a buoyant optimism and robust good sense in spite of the perversity of things and the hostility of human affairs’. Substitute the underlined word with the most appropriate option from the following.
(a) Cheerful
(b) Dull
(c) Cunning
(d) Moody

Answer

A

Read the following passage carefully. 

DEMONETISATION 2016

(1) On 10 November 2016, the Indian government decided to demonetise the 500- and 1,000-rupee notes, the two biggest denominations of the Indian currency system. These notes accounted for 86% of the country’s circulating cash. With little warning, India’s Prime Minister, Narendra Modi announced to the citizenry that these notes would be rendered ineffective with immediate effect. People were given time till the end of the year to deposit or exchange them for newly introduced 2,000 and 500-rupee notes.
(2) The government’s goal was to combat India’s thriving underground economy on several fronts: eradicate counterfeit currency, fight tax evasion (only 1% of the population pays taxes), eliminate black money accumulated from money laundering and terroristfinancing activities, and to promote a cashless economy. Individuals and entities with huge sums of black money acquired from parallel cash systems were forced to take their largedenomination notes to a bank, and account for them satisfactorily and submit the proof of tax paid. If the individual could not provide the proof of making any tax payments on the cash he/she possessed, a penalty of 200% on the tax due was to be imposed.
(3) Demonetisation had a severe impact on the gold market. The extraordinary demand for the yellow metal brought a stiff hike in its cost. However, the government made it mandatory that every buyer had to submit his/her PAN card details for purchases made.
(4) Many Indians switched to alternative payment methods. The biggest gainers were mobile wallet companies that offered easy transactions through a large network of partners. Alibaba-backed Paytm saw a sevenfold increase in overall traffic. Customers found the option of prepaid cash cards useful. Other alternatives included mobile payment systems linked to e-commerce businesses like Ola Money, FreeCharge, and Flipkart Wallet.

On the basis of your reading of the given passage, choose the correct option. 

Question. Customers found the option of ________________ useful.
(a) prepaid cash cards
(b) submitting pan card details
(c) paying tax
(d) money laundering

Answer

D

Question. Which of the following statement is NOT TRUE, according to the passage?
(a) Demonetisation had a severe impact on the stock market.
(b) Alibaba-backed Paytm saw a sevenfold increase in overall traffic.
(c) On 10 November 2016, the Indian government decided to demonetise the two biggest denominations of the Indian currency system.
(d) People were given time till the end of the year to deposit or exchange the notes.

Answer

A

Question. Why did the government decide to demonetise the 500- and 1,000- rupee notes?
(a) To eradicate counterfeit currency
(b) To fight tax evasion
(c) To eliminate black money
(d) All of these

Answer

D

Question. What was the impact of demonetisation on the entities with huge sums of black money?
(a) They were forced to take their large-denomination notes to bank.
(b) They were asked to submit the proof of tax paid.
(c) A penalty of 200% on the black money was to be imposed.
(d) Both (a) and (b)

Answer

D

Question. What did the government make mandatory for every buyer to purchase gold?
(a) To submit the proof of tax paid
(b) To submit the PAN card details
(c) To opt for mobile payment systems
(d) To submit the proof of citizenship

Answer

B

Case-based Factual Passages

Read the following passage carefully. 

The UN’s 2017 International Year tells that sustainable tourism is an important tool for development, most importantly in poor communities and countries. Today sustainability —
environmental, social, and economic – is increasingly recognised as the benchmark for all tourism business. As noted by the UN World Tourism Organisation, 57% of international tourist arrivals will be in emerging economies, by 2030. The various ‘Tourism Terms’ are defined as follows:

Category  – Ecotourism               
Definition – Responsible travel to natural areas that conserves the environment, socially and economically sustains the well-being of local people,and creates knowledge and understanding through interpretation and education of all involved (including staff, travellers, and community residents).

Category  – Ethical Tourism           
Definition – Tourism in a destination where ethical issues are the key driver, e.g. social injustice, human rights, animal welfare, or the environment.

Category  – Geotourism                 
Definition – Tourism that sustains or enhances the geographical character of a place– its environment, heritage, aesthetics, culture, and well-being of its residents.

Category  – Pro-Poor Tourism                       
Definition – Tourism that results in increased net benefit for the poor people in a destination.

Category  – Responsible Tourism     
Definition – Tourism that maximises the benefits to local communities, minimises negative social or environmental impacts, and helps local people conserve fragile cultures and habitats or species.

Category  – Sustainable Tourism   
Definition – Tourism that leads to the management of all resources in such a way that economic, social, and aesthetic needs can be fulfilled while maintaining cultural integrity, essential ecological processes, biological diversity, and life-support systems.

Based on data collected by a survey by Travel Bureau, the following market profile of an ecotourist was constructed:

Age: 35 – 54 years old, although age varied with activity and other factors such as cost.
Gender: 50% female and 50% male, although clear differences based on activity were found.
Education: 82% were college graduates, a shift in interest in ecotourism from those who have high levels of education to those with less education was also found, indicating an expansion into mainstream markets.
Household composition: No major differences were found between general tourists and experienced ecotourists Party composition: A majority (60%) of experienced ecotourism respondents stated they prefer to travel as a couple, with only 15% stating they preferred to travel with their families, and 13% preferring to travel alone. (** experienced ecotourists = Tourists that had been on at least one “ecotourism” oriented trip.)
Trip duration: The largest group of experienced ecotourists—(50%) preferred trips lasting 8-14 days.
Expenditure: Experienced ecotourists were willing to spend more than general tourists,the largest group (26%) .
Important elements of trip: Experienced ecotourists top three responses were: (a) wilderness setting, (b) wildlife viewing, (c) hiking/trekking.
Motivations for taking next trip: Experienced ecotourists top two responses were (a) enjoy scenery/nature, (b) new experiences/places.

Based on your understanding of the passage, answer any six out of the eight questions by choosing the correct option.

Question. In the line “……… recognised as the benchmark”, the word “benchmark” does not refer to:
(a) a basis for something.
(b) the criterion required.
(c) the ability to launch something new.
(d) a standard point of reference.

Answer

C

Question. The World Tourism Organisation of the UN, in an observation, shared that:
(a) emerging economies of the world will gain 57% of their annual profits from International tourists.
(b) countries with upcoming economies shall see maximum tourist footfall from all over the world in the next decade.
(c) a large number of international tourists in 2030 will be from developing countries.
(d) barely any tourist in the next decade shall travel from an economically strong nation to a weak one.

Answer

B

Question. Choose the option that lists the correct answers for the following:
1. Asha Mathew, an NRI, loves animals and wishes to travel to places that safeguard their rights and inculcate awareness of their rights. What kind of tourist is she?
2. Gurdeep Singh from UK is an environmental scientist and has always chosen to travel to places that are examples of a symbiotic relationship between man and nature. What kind of tourist is he?
(a) (1) is an ecotourist and (2) is a geotourist.
(b) (1) is an ethical tourist and (2) is a geotourist.
(c) (1) is a sustainable tourist and (2) is a pro-poor tourist.
(d) (1) is a geotourist and (2) is a responsible tourist.

Answer

B

Question. In the market profile of an ecotourist, the information on gender indicates that:
(a) female ecotourists were more than the male ecotourists.
(b) the activity preferences were varied in females and males.
(c) the choice of things to do on a trip were quite similar for both the genders.
(d) male ecotourists were frequent travellers.

Answer

B

Question. According to the survey, one of the most powerful driving forces leading experienced ecotourism to invest in new trips was:
(a) setting up work stations in new places.
(b) the chance to go camping in the wild.
(c) competing with other ecotourists as frequent travellers.
(d) the opportunity to travel to new places.

Answer

D

Question. Choose the option that lists statement that is NOT TRUE.
(a) Economically backward countries will benefit from sustainable tourism.
(b) The tourism business currently recognises sustainability as an important factor.
(c) Emerging economies will receive negligible international tourists in the near future.
(d) The sustainability factor in tourism is a significant means for development.

Answer

C

Question. The survey clearly showed that the age range of ecotourists:
(a) remained the same for the choice of tourist attractions to visit.
(b) changed with the monetary requirements for the trip.
(c) fluctuated due to male-female ratio.
(d) was constant across various features of the trip.

Answer

B

Case-based Factual Passages

Read the following passage carefully. 

More than 87,000 healthcare workers have been infected with Covid-19, with just six states — Maharashtra, Karnataka, Tamil Nadu, Delhi, West Bengal and Gujarat — accounting for three-fourths (around 74%) of the case burden and over 86% of the 573 deaths due to the infection, official data showed. Maharashtra alone, with the highest number of over 7.3 lakh confirmed Covid cases so far, accounts for around 28% of the infected healthcare workers and over 50% of the total deaths, according to the data.
While Maharashtra, Karnataka and Tamil Nadu had tested over one lakh healthcare workers each till August 28, Karnataka reported only 12,260 infected healthcare workers — almost half the burden in Maharashtra. Tamil Nadu reported 11,169 cases that included doctors, nurses and Asha workers. The three states together accounted for 55% of the total cases among health workers. Risk to frontline workers can jeopardise India’s Covid fight
— The three states also reported the highest number of deaths in healthcare professionals,though with a wide gap between Maharashtra and the other two. While Maharashtra reported 292 deaths among healthcare workers, Karnataka and Tamil Nadu had 46 and 49 deaths, respectively.

A large number of infections and even deaths of healthcare workers in particular states is being viewed with concern by officials and public health experts, who say risks to frontline workers can jeopardise India’s fight against the pandemic.
The issue, discussed in a review meeting headed by the cabinet secretary on Thursday,saw the Centre cautioning states about the need to protect a crucial resource. The possible factors responsible for high infections, officials said, were lax infection control in hospitals and the need for stringent containment measures in areas where health professionals reside to safeguard them.
Despite the high number of cases, the government has received only 143 claims since April under the ` 50 lakh Covid-19 insurance scheme for healthcare workers engaged in Covid mitigation activities.
Official sources said the wide gap between the number of deaths and claims could be because all the casualties may not be eligible under the scheme. Besides, the claims are a bit slow in coming as families of the dead take time to apply and do the required paperwork.

‘Solidarity with health workers cannot be met with mere words of encouragement but by concerted efforts to strengthen the health workforce. Safety net for their families should be provided including a term insurance cover of over ` 2 crore, with the government as sole guarantee,’ said Giridhar Babu, epidemiologist at the Public Health Foundation of India. ‘Protecting healthcare workers is of paramount importance to make sure we have a large enough force to take care of patients who need their services.’ said Dr H Sudarshan Ballal, chairman, Manipal Hospitals, who said such workers may be at risk because of a large number of asymptomatic patients and lack of proper use of PPEs.
(Source: The Times of India/Health Ministry)

Based on your understanding of the passage, answer any six out of the eight questions by choosing the correct option.

Question. In the line “… risks to frontline workers”, the term ‘frontline workers’ does NOT refer to:
(a) healthcare workers
(b) police
(c) cleanliness workers
(d) teachers

Answer

D

Question. Which state of India is on the top in terms of confirmed COVID-19 cases?
(a) Karnataka
(b) Tamil Nadu
(c) Delhi
(d) Maharashtra

Answer

D

Question. Based on your understanding of the passage, choose the option that lists the factors responsible for high infection in healthcare professionals.
1. Careless infection control in hospital
2. Negligency by healthcare professionals
3. Lack of stringest containment measure
4. The lack of healthcare professionals
(a) 1 and 2
(b) 2 and 4
(c) 1 and 3
(d) 3 and 4

Answer

C

Question. How many healthcare workers, infected with COVID-19, were there in Karnataka till August 2020?
(a) 11,169
(b) 12,260
(c) 1,07,100
(d) 15,213

Answer

B

Question. Choose the option that lists statement that is NOT TRUE.
(a) Maharashtra was the worst sufferer of Covid-19.
(b) Karnataka had less number of Covid-19 cases as compared to Maharashtra and Tamil Nadu.
(c) The deaths of healthcare workers are disregarded by officials.
(d) Most of the families of deceased healthcare workers received ` 50 lakh under Covid-19 insurance scheme.

Answer

C

Question. ‘Healthcare workers’ refers to:
(a) doctors
(b) nurses
(c) Asha workers
(d) All of these

Answer

D

Question. On how many healthcare workers COVID-19 tests have been conducted in Punjab?
(a) 1,127
(b) 994
(c) 13,141
(d) 2,029

Answer

C

Question. How many claims has the government received since April 2020 under the ` 50 lakh COVID-19 insurance scheme for healthcare workers engaged in COVID-19 alleviation activities?
(a) 49 claims
(b) 51 claims
(c) 46 claims
(d) 143 claims

Answer

D

Read the following passage carefully. 

CHILD MARRIAGE: AN EVIL

(1) Child marriages are rampant in North India. They continue to blight the lives of people.Children bound by marriage are victims of blind customs and superstitions prevalent in rural areas and certain urban concentrations among the weaker socio-economic groups.Nothing seems to stop this anti-social practice despite the Child Marriage Act passed as early as in 1929, which makes child marriage a grave offence.
(2) Why do child marriages take place and what can be done to prevent them from happening? The evil thrives because of illiteracy and other related causes—the most important of which is the anxiety of parents to marry off their daughters at the earliest.
In many high-illiteracy states, like Rajasthan, the practice of child marriage is in vogue.Akhha Teej is D-day for the parents of minor girls, since, on that day, the parents seek salvation from the anxiety of girls growing up in their midst.
(3) A child marriage is less likely to take place if the parents are literate or at least the father is. He is, then, aware of the legal minimum age for marriage and the health hazards his daughter will face by an early marriage. If the mother, otherwise literate, has been exposed to the importance of family planning, she is also less likely to solemnise her daughter’s wedding before the legal minimum age.
(4) Among the other reasons that parents give away young daughters in marriage is the need, felt especially by families with more than one daughter, to keep wedding expenses down. By marrying two daughters simultaneously, parents save on expenses. Parental anxiety about grown-up (14 years and above) daughters going astray, forces the less educated to give away their female children in marriage.
(5) The Child Marriage Restraint Act in 19710, raised the minimum age of marriage for girls from 15 to 110 years and for boys from 110 to 21 years. The committee, on the status of women, in its report in 1974, had recommended that all offences under the Child Marriage Restraint Act should be made cognizable and special officers be appointed to enforce the law.
(6) The crux of the problem is that the role of a girl-child in traditional rural areas is circumscribed around marriage and motherhood.

On the basis of your reading of the given passage, choose the correct option. 

Question. Why do parents marry two daughters simultaneously?
(a) To support the daughters
(b) To avoid health hazards
(c) To save on expenses
(d) To enforce the law

Answer

C

Question. What is Akhha Teej?
(a) The day when the family planning is exposed.
(b) The day when parents seek salvation from the anxiety of girls growing up in their midst.
(c) The day when the daughter faces health hazards.
(d) The day when two daughters marry simultaneously.

Answer

B

Question. Children bound by marriage are victims of:
(a) blind customs
(b) superstitions
(c) both (a) and (b)
(d) neither (a) nor (b)

Answer

C

Question. Select the option that makes the correct use of ‘grave’, as used in the passage, to fill in the blank space.
(a) Life is a battle from cradle to _____________.
(b) In the _____________, the rich and poor lie equal.
(c) We realised very quickly that we had made a _____________ mistake.
(d) She knelt beside her father’s _____________ to place flowers.

Answer

C

Question. In what circumstance will a child marriage be less likely to take place?
(a) If the children are victims of blind customs
(b) If the parents are literate
(c) If the parents seek salvation
(d) If the parents keep wedding expenses down

Answer

B

unseen passage for class 10 with answers pdf