Unseen Passage For Class 12 English With Answers

Unseen Passages 12

Unseen Discursive Passage Class 12 English

Agrobiodiversity initiatives open women’s horizons in Kerala

1. Kaliamma Nanjan, 70, sings as she cuts through her farm in Kerala’s Western Ghats. She deftly navigates the slopes of Attappady in Palakkad district with the gravity-defying dexterity of a mountain goat. Her silver-grey hair and bright saree vanish as she enters her mosaic-like 3.5-acre farm — her own agrobiodiversity haven.

2. There is one acre each of paddy, little millet and finger millet, and the remaining area is divided between vegetables for daily use, hyacinth beans, corn, and pulses. 3. Kaliamma is part of a unique project as a “Master Farmer” with the Kudumbashree Mission to promote and mainstream agrobiodiversity by reviving traditional and sustainable farming practices called panchakrishi.

4. Agrobiodiversity is the sustained management of various biological resources including multi-cropping, trees, herbs, spices, livestock, fish species and nondomesticated resources within fields and forests.

5. By breaking away from the silo of limiting agrobiodiversity to conservation, the Kudumbashree project integrates increasing farm productivity, boosting nutritional security, and providing market access to tribal communities in remote areas.

6. The Western Ghats is an agrobiodiversity hotspot, and in Attappady indigenous methods like panchakrishi protect it.

7. Over 10,000 tribals live in Attappady, with a majority displaced from the farm sector over the years. Land conflict, intensive farming, marginalisation have resulted in worsening socio-economic indicators including malnutrition, child deaths and food crisis linked to land alienation and the loss of their traditional agriculture in tribal communities, the government has noted. Kudumbashree entered Attappady with a host of projects after malnutrition claimed 58 lives in 2012-2014.

8. Kudumbashree, Kerala’s programme and network for women’s empowerment and poverty eradication with over 4.3 million members, has its hands in many pies. It has floated special projects for tribal women living in the 745 square km Attappady block in Palakkad in 2017.

9. “For this project, Kudumbashree has mobilised its community-based networks and aligned with the Mahila Kisan Sashakthikarana Pariyojana (MKSP), under the National Rural Livelihoods Mission,” Sai Dalvi, District Mission Coordinator in Palakkad, said.

10. There are 192 hamlets and over 840 ha under panchakrishi farming, producing pulses, tubers, paddy, millets, and vegetables.

11. “Government and farmers organisations need to be the base, but the farmers should have the autonomy,” explained Ramanatha Rao, a geneticist formerly with policy and think-tank Bioversity International.

12. “We need to pay attention to what farmers want,” said Rao.

13. “Production-oriented agriculture has sacrificed agrobiodiversity and farmer well-being while compromising on environmental protection and nature conservation. For long, we have looked at these aspects disparately, without an integrated approach.”

14. Mainstreaming involves integrating specific components of biodiversity into other sectors for the generation of mutual benefits, as noted in Mainstreaming Agrobiodiversity in Sustainable Food Systems published in 2016. However, this isn’t a onesize- fits-all approach. Governments, farmer organisations and consumer associations can influence programmes and policies that can combine agrobiodiversity with tourism, conservation, increasing productivity, resilience, climate change mitigation or adaptation, nutritional security, food sovereignty or poverty alleviation.

Choose the correct option to answer any ten of the following questions : 

Question. Kaliamma Nanjan, 70, sings as she cuts through her farm in Kerala’s Western Ghats. What could be the reason for her singing while working on her farm?
(a) she likes to sing
(b) singing makes the work easier
(c) she is happy with her farm work being supported by Kudumbashree project
(d) none of the above

Answer

C

Question. Why is Kaliamma’s 3.5-acre farm called mosaic-like?
(a) she has many plants in her farm which makes it colourful
(b) it has many tiles
(c) she grows many flowers
(d) none of the above

Answer

A

Question. Of the 3.5 acre farm that Kaliamma has, how much is devoted to vegetables for daily use, hyacinth beans, corn, and pulses.
(a) 1 acre
(b) 0.5 acres
(c) none
(d) 2.5 acres

Answer

B

Question. What is agrobiodiversity?
(a) animal husbandry
(b) managing different crops
(c) growing trees and crops together
(d) managing various biological resources like multicropping, trees, livestock, and fish species among others.

Answer

D

Question. The traditional and sustainable farming practices are called ………………… .
(a) Panchakrishi
(b) Kudumbashree
(c) Agrobiodiversity
(d) Master Farmer

Answer

A

Question. What are the three aspects of the Kudumbashree project?
(a) increasing farm productivity, boosting nutritional security, banning market access to tribal communities in remote areas
(b) reducing farm productivity, boosting nutritional security, providing market access to tribal communities in remote areas
(c) increasing farm productivity, boosting nutritional security, providing market access to tribal communities in remote areas
(d) none of the above

Answer

C

Question. Over ………………… live in Attappady and a majority have been displaced from the farm sector over the years.
(a) 10,000 weavers
(b) 10,000 artisans
(c) 10,000 tribals
(d) 10,000 farmers

Answer

C

Question. What else besides land conflict, and intensive farming has resulted in deteriorating socio-economic indicators among the tribal communities?
(a) being marginalised
(b) being incorporated
(c) being rehabilitated
(d) none of these

Answer

A

Question. Which three social indicators have been mentioned in the article?
(a) malnutrition, child deaths and maternal mortality rate
(b) malnutrition, child deaths and food crisis
(c) school drop outs, child deaths and food crisis
(d) none of the above

Answer

B

Question. What has “sacrificed agrobiodiversity and farmer wellbeing while compromising on environmental protection and nature conservation”?
(a) use of pesticides
(b) use of chemicals
(c) using high yield variety seeds
(d) all farming practices that increase yields per cycle

Answer

D

Question. Which word in the passage means “skilfully”?
(a) deftly
(b) dexterity
(c) sustainable
(d) autonomy

Answer

A

Question. Which word in the passage is opposite in meaning to “clumsiness”?
(a) deftly
(b) dexterity
(c) sustainable
(d) autonomy

Answer

B

Unseen Cloze Passage Class 12 English

Choose the correct options to fill in the blanks to complete the note about Raman Shah. 
Raman Shah was sprinting his car to meet a business partner, when suddenly he ___ (a) ___ feeling a sharp pain in his chest. He felt as if someone ___ (b) ___ his chest. He began having trouble with his breathing and ___ (c) ___ seem to be in a proper frame of health.

Question. (i) could not
(ii) does not
(iii) did not
(iv) has not

Answer

C

Question. (i) start
(ii) starting
(iii) started
(iv) starts

Answer

C

Question. (i) squeezing
(ii) squeezed
(iii) squeeze
(iv) was squeezing

Answer

D

Read the passage below and answer the questions that follow : 

The term dietary fibres refers collectively to indigestible carbohydrates present in plant foods. The importance of these dietary fibres came into the picture when it was observed that the people having diet rich in these fibres, had low incidence of coronary heart disease, irritable bowel syndrome, dental caries and gall stones.

The foodstuffs rich in these dietary fibres are cereals and grains, legumes, fruits with seeds, citrus fruits, carrots, cabbage, green leafy vegetables, apples, melons, peaches, pears, etc.

These dietary fibres are not digested by the enzymes of the stomach and the small intestine whereas, most of the other carbohydrates like starch and sugar are digested and absorbed. The dietary fibres have the property of holding water and because of it, these get swollen and behave like a sponge as these pass through the gastrointestinal tract. The fibres add bulk to the diet and increase transit time in the gut. Some of these fibres may undergo fermentation in the colon.

In recent years, it has been considered essential to have some amount of fibres in the diet. Their beneficial effects help in preventing coronary heart disease, and decreasing cholesterol levels. The fibres like gums and pectin are reported to decrease postprandial (after meals) glucose level in blood. These types of dietary fibres are recommended for the management of certain types of diabetes. Recent studies have shown that the fenugreek (Methi) seeds, which contain 40 percent gum, are effective in decreasing blood glucose and cholesterol levels as compared to other gum containing vegetables.

Some dietary fibres increase transit time and decrease the time of release of ingested food in colon. The diet having less fibres is associated with colon cancer and the dietary fibres may play a role in decreasing the risk of it. The dietary fibres hold water so that stools are soft, bulky and readily eliminated. Therefore, high fibre intake prevents or relieves constipation.

The fibres increase motility of the small intestine and the colon and by decreasing the transit time there is less time for exposure of the mucosa to harmful toxic substances. Therefore, there is less desire to eat and the energy intake can be maintained within the range of requirement. This phenomenon helps in keeping a check on obesity. Another reason in helping to decrease obesity is that the high-fibre diets have somewhat lower coefficients of digestibility.

The dietary fibres may have some adverse effects on nutrition by binding some trace metals like calcium, magnesium, phosphorus, zinc and others and ‘therefore’ preventing their proper absorption. This may pose a possibility of nutritional deficiency especially when diets contain marginal levels of mineral elements. This may become an important constraint on increasing dietary fibres. It is suggested that an intake of 40 grams dietary fibres per day is desirable.

(a) On the basis of your reading of the above passage, make notes in points only, using abbreviations wherever necessary. Supply a suitable title.
Answer :
Title : Dietary Fibres
1. Notes

(i) Importance : lowers
(a) hrt disease
(b) irrtble bowel syndrome
(c) dental caries
(d) gall stones

(ii) Rich dietary fibers
(a) cereals, grains, legumes
(b) fruits
(c) vegetables

(iii) Adverse effects
(a) bind metals like ca, mg, ph, zn
(b) prevents their absoptn
(c) nutnl defcncy

Abbreviation Used
Hrt : heart
Irrtble : irritable
Ca : calcium
Mg : magnesium
Ph : phosphorous
Zn : zinc
Absoptn : absorption
Nutnl : nutritional
Defcncy : deficiency

(b) Write a summary of the above in about 80 words.
Summary: Dietary fibers are indigestible carbohydrates present in plant foods. People having diet rich in fibers have low heart diseases, irritable bowel syndrome, dental caries and gall stones. 
Sources of dietary fibers are legumes, cereals, fruits, vegetables and grains. The fibers like gums present in fenugreek and pectin decrease glucose level. The diet which is less in fibers results in colon cancer. The dietary fibers hold water and functions like sponge, hence they prevent constipation.
But there are adverse effects also. They bind some trace metals resulting in nutritional deficiency.

English 2012 (Outside Delhi) SECTION A : READING

Read the passage given below and answer the questions that follow:

1. While there is no denying that the world loves a winner, it is important that you recognise the signs of stress in your behaviour and be healthy enough to enjoy your success. Stress can strike anytime, in a fashion that may leave you unaware of its presence in your life. While a certain amount of pressure is necessary for performance, it is important to be able to recognise your individual limit. For instance, there are some individuals who accept competition in a healthy fashion. There are others who collapse into weeping wrecks before an exam or on comparing marksheets and finding that their friend has scored better.

2. Stress is a body reaction to any demands or changes in its internal and external environment. Whenever there is a change in the external environment such as temperature, pollutants, humidity and working conditions, it leads to stress. In these days of competition when a person makes up his mind to surpass what has been achieved by others, leading to an imbalance between demands and resources, it causes psycho-social stress. It is a part and parcel of everyday life.

3. Stress has a different meaning, depending on the stage of life you are in. The loss of a toy or a reprimand from the parents might create a stress shock in a child. An adolescent who fails in examination may feel as if everything has been lost and life has no further meaning. In an adult the loss of his or her companion, job or professional failure may appear as if there is nothing more to be achieved.

4. Such signs appear in the attitude and behaviour of the individual, as muscle tension in various parts of the body, palpitation and high blood pressure, indigestion and hyper-acidity. Ultimately the result is self-destructive behaviour such as eating and drinking too much, smoking excessively, relying on tranquilisers. There are other signs of stress such as trembling, shaking, nervous blinking, dryness of throat and mouth and difficulty in swallowing.

5. The professional under stress behaves as if he is a perfectionist. It leads to depression, lethargy and weakness. Periodic mood shifts also indicate the stress status of the students, executives and professionals.

6. In a study sponsored by World Health Organisation and carried out by Harvard School of Public Health, the global burden of diseases and injury indicated that stress diseases and accidents are going to be the major killers in 2020.

7. The heart disease and depression – both stress diseasesare going to rank first and second in 2020. Road traffic accidents are going to be the third largest killers. These accidents are also an indicator of psycho-social stress in a fast-moving society. Other stress diseases like ulcers, hypertension and sleeplessness have assumed epidemic proportions in modern societies.

8. A person under stress reacts in different ways and the common ones are flight, fight and flee depending upon the nature of the stress and capabilities of the person. The three responses can be elegantly chosen to cope with the stress so that stress does not damage the system and become distress.

9. When a stress crosses the limit, peculiar to an individual, it lowers his performance capacity. Frequent crossings of the limit may result in chronic fatigue in which a person feels lethargic, disinterested and is not easily motivated to achieve anything. This may make the person mentally undecided, confused and accident prone as well. Sudden exposure to un-nerving stress may also result in a loss of memory. Diet, massage, food supplements, herbal medicines, hobbies, relaxation techniques and dance movements are excellent stress busters.

(a)
Question. What is stress ? What factors lead to stress ? 
Answer : Stress is a body reaction to any demands or changes in its internal and external environment.
Whenever there is a change in the external environment such as temperature, pollutants, humidity and working conditions,it leads to stress and when there is an imbalance between
demands and resources, it causes psycho-social stress.

Question. What are the signs by which a person can know that he is under stress ? 
Answer : A muscle tension in various parts of body, palpitation,high blood pressure, indigestion and hyperacidity are the signs that appear in the attitude and behavior of a person
under stress. There are other signs also such as trembling, shaking, nervous blinking, dryness of throat and mouth and difficulty in swallowing.

Question. What are the different diseases a person gets due to stress ? 
Answer : The different diseases caused due to stress are heart disease, depression, accidents, ulcers, hypertension and sleeplessness.

Question. Give any two examples of stress busters. 
Answer : Relaxation techniques and dance movements are the two examples of stress busters.

Question. How does a person react under stress ? 
Answer : A person under stress reacts in different ways and the common ones are flight, fight and flee depending upon the nature of stress and capabilities of the person.

(b) Which words in the above passage mean the same as the following ? 

(i) fall down (para 1)
Answer : Collapse

(ii) Rebuke (para 3)
Answer : Reprimand

(iii) Inactive (para 9)
Answer : Lethargic

Read the passage given below and answer the questions that follow:

1. While there is no denying that the world loves a winner, it is important that you recognise the signs of stress in your behaviour and be healthy enough to enjoy your success. Stress can strike anytime, in a fashion that may leave you unaware of its presence in your life. While a certain amount of pressure is necessary for performance, it is important to be able to recognise your individual limit. For instance, there are some individuals who accept competition in a healthy fashion. There are others who collapse into weeping wrecks before an exam or on comparing marksheets and finding that their friend has scored better.

2. Stress is a body reaction to any demands or changes in its internal and external environment. Whenever there is a change in the external environment such as temperature, pollutants, humidity and working conditions, it leads to stress. In these days of competition when a person makes up his mind to surpass what has been achieved by others, leading to an imbalance between demands and resources, it causes psycho-social stress. It is a part and parcel of everyday life.

3. Stress has a different meaning, depending on the stage of life you are in. The loss of a toy or a reprimand from the parents might create a stress shock in a child. An adolescent who fails in examination may feel as if everything has been lost and life has no further meaning. In an adult the loss of his or her companion, job or professional failure may appear as if there is nothing more to be achieved.

4. Such signs appear in the attitude and behaviour of the individual, as muscle tension in various parts of the body, palpitation and high blood pressure, indigestion and hyper-acidity. Ultimately the result is self-destructive behaviour such as eating and drinking too much, smoking excessively, relying on tranquilisers. There are other signs of stress such as trembling, shaking, nervous blinking, dryness of throat and mouth and difficulty in swallowing.

5. The professional under stress behaves as if he is a perfectionist. It leads to depression, lethargy and weakness. Periodic mood shifts also indicate the stress status of the students, executives and professionals.

6. In a study sponsored by World Health Organisation and carried out by Harvard School of Public Health, the global burden of diseases and injury indicated that stress diseases and accidents are going to be the major killers in 2020.

7. The heart disease and depression – both stress diseasesare going to rank first and second in 2020. Road traffic accidents are going to be the third largest killers. These accidents are also an indicator of psycho-social stress in a fast-moving society. Other stress diseases like ulcers, hypertension and sleeplessness have assumed epidemic proportions in modern societies.

8. A person under stress reacts in different ways and the common ones are flight, fight and flee depending upon the nature of the stress and capabilities of the person. The three responses can be elegantly chosen to cope with the stress so that stress does not damage the system and become distress.

9. When a stress crosses the limit, peculiar to an individual, it lowers his performance capacity. Frequent crossings of the limit may result in chronic fatigue in which a person feels lethargic, disinterested and is not easily motivated to achieve anything. This may make the person mentally undecided, confused and accident prone as well. Sudden exposure to un-nerving stress may also result in a loss of memory. Diet, massage, food supplements, herbal medicines, hobbies, relaxation techniques and dance movements are excellent stress busters.

(a)
Question. What is stress ? What factors lead to stress ? 
Answer : Stress is a body reaction to any demands or changes in its internal and external environment.
Whenever there is a change in the external environment such as temperature, pollutants, humidity and working conditions,it leads to stress and when there is an imbalance between
demands and resources, it causes psycho-social stress.

Question. What are the signs by which a person can know that he is under stress ? 
Answer : A muscle tension in various parts of body, palpitation,high blood pressure, indigestion and hyperacidity are the signs that appear in the attitude and behavior of a person
under stress. There are other signs also such as trembling, shaking, nervous blinking, dryness of throat and mouth and difficulty in swallowing.

Question What are the different diseases a person gets due to stress ? 
Answer : The different diseases caused due to stress are heart disease, depression, accidents, ulcers, hypertension and sleeplessness.

Question. Give any two examples of stress busters. 
Answer : Relaxation techniques and dance movements are the two examples of stress busters.

Question. How does a person react under stress ? 
Answer : A person under stress reacts in different ways and the common ones are flight, fight and flee depending upon the nature of stress and capabilities of the person.

(b) Which words in the above passage mean the same as the following ?

(i) fall down (para 1)
Answer : Collapse

(ii) Rebuke (para 3)
Answer : Reprimand

(iii) Inactive (para 9)
Answer : Lethargic

Unseen Passage For Class 12 English With Answers